|Hormone||Location released||Major functions||Interaction with mast cells||Reference|
|Ghrelin||Stomach, jejunum, duodenum, colon, brain, lungs, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, lymphatic system||Stimulate appetite
Can cross BBB
|Induced mast cell degranulation
Dose dependently induced histamine release
Inhibits many inflammatory molecules, like TNF, IL-8, MCP-1, IL-1b, IL-6, CRP, IL-12, VCAM-1, MMP2, MMP9, GM-CSF and IL-17
Opposes action of leptin, a mast cell mediator
Level is increased by lack of sleep, promoting excessive hunger.
|Hirayama T, et al. Ghrelin and obestatin promote the allergic action in rat peritoneal mast cells as basic secretagogues. Peptides 2010: 31(11), 2109-2113.
Baatar D, et al. The effects of ghrelin on inflammation and the immune system. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2011: 340(1), 44-58.
|Glucagon||Pancreas||Regulates amount of available glucose
Triggers breakdown of glycogen and production of glucose in liver, raising blood sugar
Released when blood sugar is too low
Can increase level of cAMP in myocardium to overcome effect of beta blockers
Anecdotal reports that glucagon may be able to relax esophagus sphincter to pass impacted food
|In anaphylaxis patients on beta blockers, glucagon can be used to reduce resistance to epinephrine and increase blood pressure
May be considered to treat Kounis Syndrome where epinephrine is contraindicated
Histamine H3 receptor may regulate glucagon release from pancreas
|Nakamura T, et al. Role of histamine H3 receptor in glucagon secreting aTC1.6 cells. FEBS Open Bio 2015: 5, 36-41.
Thomas M, Crawford I. Glucagon infusion in refractory anaphylactic shock in patients on beta blockers. Emerg Med J 2005: 22, 272-276.
|Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)||Small intestine||Increases release of insulin and nausea
Decreases release of glucagon, desire to eat and amount of food consumed
|Possible relationship between GLP-1 and histamine in the brain, but still unclear
GLP-1 level is modulated by leptin, a mast cell mediator Increases ACTH and cortisol
|Gotoh K, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and hypothalamic neuronal histamine interact in the leptin-signaling pathway to regulate feeding behavior. FASEB J 2005: 19(9), 1131-1133.|
|Gonadotropin releasing hormone||Hypothalamus||Stimulate FSH and LH release from pituitary
Part of HPG axis
Drive secondary sex characteristics
Regulate sex hormone release
|Histamine induces GnRH release in some studies||Noris G, et al. Histamine directly stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion from GT1-1 cells via H1 receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Endrocrinology 1995: 136(7), 2967-2974.|
|Growth hormone releasing hormone||Hypothalamus||Stimulate growth hormone release from pituitary
Regulates bone growth
Regulates metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
|Induces mast cell degranulation and release of serotonin and histamine, causing low blood pressure||Macia RA, et al. Hypotension induced by growth hormone releasing peptide is mediated by mast cell serotonin release in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1990: 104(3), 403-410.|
|Hepcidin||Liver||Decreases iron absorption in intestines
Decreases iron release by macrophages
|Chronic inflammation causes elevated hepcidin, making iron less available. This is called anemia of chronic inflammation.||Weiss G. Anemia of chronic disorders: new diagnostic tools and new treatment strategies. Seminars in Hematology 2015: 52(4), 313-320.|
|Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)||Placenta||Maintains hormone release in ovaries during pregnancy
Inhibition of immune defense against fetus
|Not known to directly affect mast cell activation or histamine release||Schumacher A, et al. Endocrine factors modulating immune responses in pregnancy. Front Immunol 2014: 5, 196.|