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Master table of stored mast cell mediators

Mediator Symptoms Pathophysiology
Angiogenin Tissue damage Formation of new blood vessels, degradation of basement membrane and local matrix
Arylsulfatases Breaks down molecules to produce building blocks for nerve and muscle cells
Bradykinin Angioedema, swelling of airway, swelling of GI tract, inflammation, pain, hypotension Vasodilation, induces release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin
Carboxypeptidase A Muscle damage Tissue remodeling
Cathepsin G Pain, muscle damage Converts angiotensin I to II, activates TGF-b, muscle damage, pain, fibrosis, activates platelets, vasodilation
Chondroitin sulfate Cartilage synthesis
Chymase Cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, myocardial infarction Tissue remodeling, conversion of angiotensin I to II, cleaves lipoproteins, activates TGF-b, tissue damage, pain, fibrosis
Corticotropin-releasing hormone Dysregulation has wide reaching and severe effects Stimulates secretion of ACTH to form cortisol and steroids
Endorphins Numbness Pain relief
Endothelin Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, type II diabetes, Hirschsprung disease Vasoconstriction
Eotaxin (CCL11) Cognitive deficits Attracts eosinophils, decreases nerve growth
Heparin Hematoma formation, bruising, prolonged bleeding post-biopsy, gum bleeding, epistaxis, GI bleed, conjunctival bleeding, bleeding ulcers Cofactor for nerve growth factor, anticoagulant, prevents platelet aggregation, angiogenesis
Histamine Headache, hypotension, pruritis, urticaria, angioedema, diarrhea, anaphylaxis Vasodilation of vessels, vasoconstriction of atherosclerotic coronary arteries, action of endothelium, formation of new blood vessels cell proliferation, pain
Hyaluronic acid Degradation contributes to skin damage Tissue repair, cartilage synthesis, activation of white blood cells
IL-8 (CXCL8) Mast cell degranulation Attracts white blood cells (mostly neutrophils) to site of infection, activates mast cells, promotes degranulation
Kininogenases Angioedema, pain, low blood pressure Synthesis of bradykinin
Leptin Obesity Regulates food intake
Matrix metalloproteinases Irregular menses (MMP-2) Tissue damage, modification of cytokines and chemokines (modifies molecules to make them useful)
MCP-1 (CCL2) Nerve pain Attracts white blood cells to site of injury or infection, neuroinflammation, infiltration of monocytes (seen in some autoimmune diseases)
MCP-3 (CCL7) Increases activity of white blood cells in inflamed spaces
MCP-4 (CCL13) Shortness of breath, tightness of airway, cough Attracts white blood cells to inflamed spaces, induces mast cell release of TNFa and IL-1, asthma symptoms
Phospholipase A2 Vascular inflammation, acute coronary syndrome Generates precursor molecule for prostaglandins and leukotrienes
RANTES (CCL5) Osteoarthritis Attracts white cells to inflamed spaces, causes proliferation of some white cells
Renin Cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, blood pressure abnormalities Angiotensin synthesis, controls volume of blood plasma,lymph and interstitial fluid, regulates blood pressure
Serotonin/5-HT Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, GI pain Vasoconstriction, pain
Somatostatin Low stomach acid symptoms, low blood sugar Regulates endocrine system, cell growth and nerve signals, inhibits release of glucagon and insulin, decreases release of gastrin, secretin and histamine
Substance P Neurologic pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, mood disorders, anxiety Transmits sensory nerve signals, including pain, mood disorders, stress perception, nerve growth and respiration
Tissue plasminogen activator Blood clots Activates plasminogen, clotting
Tryptase Hematoma formation, bruising, prolonged bleeding post-biopsy, gum bleeding, epistaxis, GI bleed, conjunctival bleeding, bleeding ulcers; inflammation Activation of endothelium, triggers smooth muscle proliferation, activates degradation of fibrinogen, activates MMP molecules,tissue damage, activation of PAR, inflammation, pain
Urocortin Increased appetite when stressed, inflammation, low blood pressure Vasodilation, increases coronary blood flow
Vasoactive intestinal peptide Decreased absorption, low blood pressure, low stomach acid symptoms Vasodilation, mast cell activation, lowers blood pressure, relaxes muscles of trachea, stomach and gall bladder, inhibits gastric acid secretion, inhibits absorption
VEGF Diseases of blood vessels Formation of new blood vessels, vasodilation and permeability of smaller vessels