Chromogranin A

Chromogranin A is a protein secreted in several environments. While it is primarily released in the adrenal medulla with catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and others), CgA is often found stored in the granules of endocrine cells in the GI tract. CgA is the precursor molecule for several active molecules. Vasostatin-1 and -2 are involved in regulation of various effects of the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure and stroke volume, by opposing the action of catecholamines. Catestatin decreases release of catecholamines. Pancreastatin decreases insulin secretion. A number of other molecules are also derived from CgA.

Chromogranin A and its derivatives are biomarkers for several conditions. 60-80% of neuroendocrine tumor patients demonstrated elevated chromogranin A. A connection with Alzheimer’s disease has recently been reported. Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus patients may have elevated CgA as a result of increased tumor necrosis factor. Various forms of cancer, kidney disease, and elevated cortisol can also impact chromogranin A level.

Elevated CgA has also been linked to a number of inflammatory GI conditions. 30-50% of IBD patients with active disease have elevated serum CgA. In ulcerative colitis, fecal chromogranins were elevated but not correlated with disease activity. Conflicting results have been seen in patients with Crohn’s disease. Some studies have reported an increased amount of CgA containing cells in patients with IBS.

There are a number of methods for quantifying chromogranin A. Proton pump inhibitors and H2 antihistamines can yield false positive results. A study compared several commercial kits for measuring chromogranin A and found that the radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit was most likely to be accurate with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 85%. This means that 93% of the time, this kit properly identified patients with high CgA as having high CgA, while 85% of the time, it properly identified patients with normal CgA as having normal CgA. Currently, there are multiple test methods for quantifying serum and plasma CgA with no central standardization.

Chromogranin A is a constituent of granules in rat mast cells. Tumor necrosis factor is a mediator released by mast cells and may also influence the levels of chromogranin A in mast cell patients. One study found that 31.5% of patients with mast cell activation disease (in a cohort mostly composed of MCAS patients) demonstrated elevation of serum CgA. This same study concluded that plasma heparin and 24 urine testing for prostaglandin D2 and 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2 were the most sensitive markers for mast cell activation with other mediators being less effective.

References:

Gut P, et al. (2016) Chromogranin A – unspecific neuroendocrine marker. Clinical utility and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Arch Med Sci, 12(1): 1-9.

Wernersson S, Pejler G. (2014). Mast cell secretory granules: armed for battle. Nature Reviews Immunology, 14: 478-494.

D’Amico MA, et al. (2014) Biological function and clinical relevance of chromogranin A and derived peptides. Endocrin Connect, 3(2):R45-54.

Mazzawi T, et al. (2015) Increased chromogranin A cell density in large intestine of patients with irritable bowel syndrome after receiving dietary guidance. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Article ID 823897.

Zenker N, Afrin LB. (2015) Utilities of various mast cell mediators in diagnosis mast cell activation syndrome. Blood, 126:5174.

Massironi S, et al. (2016). Chromogranin A and other enteroendocrine markers in inflammatory bowel disease. Neuropeptides, xxx, xxx-xxx.

The Provider Primer Series: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)

Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), also called mast cell activation disorder (MCAD), is an immunologic condition in which mast cells are aberrantly activated, resulting in inappropriate mediator release.

Presentation

  • MCAS can be responsible for chronic symptoms in multiple organs that cannot be attributed to another cause[vi].
  • Patients frequently receive diagnosis for a number of idiopathic conditions prior to correct diagnosis with MCAS[vi].
  • Mast cell activation syndrome is overwhelmingly a secondary condition. MCAS can be secondary to a number of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, connective tissue diseases, and atopic conditions[i].
  • The term “primary MCAS” refers to mediator release symptoms associated with mastocytosis[xvii] . However, the term “mastocytosis” generally conveys the understanding that both proliferation and mediator release symptoms are possible.
  • In idiopathic MCAS, no cause for symptoms can be identified[xvii] .
  • The presence of multiple mast cell patients in one family is not uncommon. A heritable gene has not yet been identified. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected for transmission of mast cell disease to another generation[iv].
  • Approximately 75% of mast cell patients have at least one first degree relative with mast cell disease and not always the same subtype[ii]. For example, a mother may have MCAS, while one of her children has SM and the other has CM.

Diagnostic criteria

  • MCAS is a recently described diagnosis. In the absence of large studies, several groups have developed their own, sometimes conflicting, diagnostic criteria.
  • Differential diagnoses with potential to cause similar symptoms should be considered and excluded[iii].
  • The criteria most frequently used include those by a 2010 paper by Akin, Valent and Metcalfe[iii]; a 2011 paper by Molderings, Afrin and colleagues[iv]; and a 2013 paper by Castells and colleagues[v].
  • The criteria described in the 2011 paper by Molderings, Afrin and colleagues have been updated to include response to medication[vi].
  • Of note, a 2012 consensus proposal[x] was authored by a number of mast cell experts including Valent, Escribano, Castells, Akin and Metcalfe. It sees little practical use and is not generally accepted in the community.
  • The major sets of criteria listed above all include the following features:
    • Recurrent or chronic symptoms of mast cell activation
    • Objective evidence of excessive mast cell mediator release
    • Positive response to medications that inhibit action of mast cell mediators
  • Valent warns that in some cases, patients may not fulfill all criteria but still warrant treatment: “In many cases, only two or even one of these three criteria can be documented. In the case of typical symptoms, the provisional diagnosis of ‘possibly MCA/MCAS’ can be established, and in acute cases, immediate treatment should be introduced.”[vii]

Evidence of mediator release

  • Mast cells produce a multitude of mediators including tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4, heparin and chromogranin A[viii].
  • Serum tryptase and 24 hour urine testing for n-methylhistamine, prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin 9a,11b-F2 are frequently included in testing guidelines in literature (Castells 2013)[ix], (Akin 2010)[x], (Valent 2012)[xi].
  • It can be helpful to test for other mast cell mediators including 24 hour urine testing for leukotriene E4[xii]; plasma heparin[xiii]; and serum chromogranin A[xiv].
  • In most instances, elevation of a mediator must be present on two occasions[ix]. This helps to exclude situations of appropriate mast cell activation, such as infection or wound healing.
  • For patients with baseline tryptase level >15 ng/mL, elevation of tryptase above this baseline is only required on one occasion[viii].

Symptoms associated with mast cell activation

  • Mediator release causes a wide array of symptoms, including hypertension[xv], hypotension, hypertension, wheezing, itching, flushing, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, angioedema, fatigue, and neurologic symptoms[iv].
  • In a small MCAS cohort (18 patients), 17% had a history of anaphylaxis[xvii] . A larger data set is desirable.
  • Patients with history of anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors[v]. If patient must be on a beta blocker, they should be prescribed a glucagon injector for use in the event of anaphylaxis[v].

Response to medications that inhibit action of mast cell mediators

  • Treatment of MCAS is complex and may require a number of medications. Second generation H1 antihistamines; H2 antihistamines; and mast cell stabilizers are mainstays of treatment[xvi].
  • Additional options include aspirin; anti-IgE; leukotriene blocker; and corticosteroids[xiii] .
  • First generation H1 antihistamines may be used for breakthrough symptoms[xiii] .
  • “An important point is that many different mediators may be involved in MCA-related symptoms so that the final conclusion the patient is not responding to antimediator therapy should only be drawn after having applied several different antimediator-type drugs[xiii] .
  • Inactive ingredients are often to blame for reaction to mast cell mediator focused medications. Many mast cell patients see benefit from having medications compounded[xvii].

Natural history

  • In one MCAS cohort of 18 patients, 33% had a complete (no unmanaged symptoms) response and 33% had a major (only one serious symptom) response after one year of mast cell treatment[xviii].
  • In another MCAS cohort of 135 patients, 51% demonstrated significant improvement, 11% had no obvious change in symptom severity and 38% experienced worsening symptoms[v]. (Author’s note: While described in an Afrin 2016[v] paper, the data from this cohort has not yet been published. Molderings is the principle investigator.

 

References

[i] Frieri M, et al. (2013). Mast cell activation syndrome: a review. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 13(1), 27-32.

[ii] Molderings GJ, et al. (2013). Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease. PLoS One, 8, e76241-24098785

[iii] Akin C, et al. (2010). Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(6), 1099-1104.e4

[iv] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[v] Castells M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clin Ther, 35(5), 548-562.

[vi] Afrin LB, et al. (2016). Often seen, rarely recognized: mast cell activation disease – a guide to diagnosis and therapeutic options. Annals of Medicine, 48(3).

[vii] Valent P. (2013). Mast cell activation syndromes: definition and classification. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 68(4), 417-424.

[viii] Theoharides TC, et al. (2012). Mast cells and inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(1), 21-33.

[ix] Picard M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clinical Therapeutics, 35(5), 548-562.

[x] Akin C, et al. (2010). Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(6), 1099-1104.e4

[xi] Valent P, et al. (2012). Definitions, criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell activation syndromes: a consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 157(3), 215-225.

[xii] Lueke AJ, et al. (2016). Analytical and clinical validation of an LC-MS/MS method for urine leukotriene E4: a marker of systemic mastocytosis. Clin Biochem, 49(13-14), 979-982.

[xiii] Vysniauskaite M, et al. (2015). Determination of plasma heparin level improves identification of systemic mast cell activation disease. PLoS One, 10(4), e0124912

[xiv] Zenker N, Afrin LB. (2015). Utilities of various mast cell mediators in diagnosing mast cell activation syndrome. Blood, 126(5174).

[xv] Shibao C, et al. (2005). Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders. Hypertension, 45(3), 385-390.

[xvi] Cardet JC, et al. (2013). Immunology and clinical manifestations of non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 13(1), 10-18.

[xvii] Afrin LB. “Presentation, diagnosis and management of mast cell activation syndrome.” In: Mast Cells. Edited by David B. Murray, Nova cience Publishers, Inc., 2013, 155-232.

[xviii] Hamilton MJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128(1), 147-152.e2

The Provider Primer Series: Mediator testing

Evidence of mediator release

  • Mast cells produce a multitude of mediators including tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4, heparin and chromogranin A[i].
  • Objective evidence of mast cell mediator release is required for diagnosis of MCAS (Castells 2013)[ii], (Akin 2010)[iii], (Valent 2012)[iv].
  • Serum tryptase and 24 hour urine testing for n-methylhistamine, prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin 9a,11b-F2 are frequently included in MCAS testing recommendations (Castells 2013)[ii], (Akin 2010)[iii], (Valent 2012)[iv].
  • It can be helpful to test for other mast cell mediators including 24 hour urine testing for leukotriene E4[v]; plasma heparin[ix]; serum chromogranin A[ix]; and leukotriene E4[ix].

Tryptase

  • Tryptase is extremely specific for mast cell activation in the absence of hematologic malignancy or advanced kidney disease. Of note, rheumatoid factor can cause false elevation of tryptase[ix].
  • Serum tryptase levels peak 15-120 minutes after release with an estimated half-life of two hours[vi].
  • Per key opinion leaders, tryptase levels should be drawn 15 minutes to 4 hours after onset of anaphylaxis or activation event (Castells 2013[ii]), (Akin 2010[iii]), (Valent 2012)[iv]). Phadia, the manufacturer of the ImmunoCap® test to quantify tryptase, recommends that blood be drawn 15 minutes to 3 hours after event onset[vii].
  • Serum tryptase >11.4 ng/mL is elevated[i]. In addition to measuring tryptase level during the event, another sample should be drawn 24-48 hours after the event, and a third sample drawn two weeks later. This allows comparison of event tryptase level to baseline[vi].
  • An increase in serum tryptase level during an event by 20% + 2 ng/mL above patient baseline is often accepted as evidence of mast cell activation[v],[i].
  • Absent elevation of tryptase level from baseline during an event does not exclude mast cell activation[viii].
  • Sensitivity for serum tryptase assay in MCAS patients was assessed as 10% in a 2014 paper[ix].
  • A recent retrospective study of almost 200 patients found serum was elevated in 8.8% of MCAS patients[x].
  • Baseline tryptase >20.0 ng/mL is a minor criterion for diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. 77-85% of SM patients have baseline tryptase >20.0 ng/mL[ix].

Histamine and degradation product n-methylhistamine

  • N-methylhistamine is the breakdown product of histamine.
  • Histamine is degraded quickly. Samples should be drawn within 15 minutes of episode onset[vii].
  • Serum histamine levels peak 5 minutes after release and return to baseline in 15-30 minutes[vii].
  • Sample (urine or serum) must be kept chilled[xi].
  • In addition to mast cells, histamine is also released by basophils. Consumption of foods or liquids that contain histamine can also inflate the level when tested[ix].
  • A recent retrospective study of almost 200 patients found that n-methylhistamine was elevated in 7.4% of MCAS patients in random spot urine and 5.4% in 24-hour urine[xi].
  • Sensitivity of 24-hour n-methylhistamine for MCAS was assessed as 22% in 24-hour urine[ix].
  • Plasma histamine was elevated in 29.3% of MCAS patients[xi].
  • 50-81% of systemic mastocytosis patients demonstrate elevated n-methylhistamine in 24-hour urine[ix].

Prostaglandin D2 and degradation product prostaglandin 9a,11b-F2

  • 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2 is the breakdown product of prostaglandin D2.
  • Prostaglandin D2 is only produced in large quantities by mast cells. Basophils, eosinophils and other cells produce minute amounts[ix].
  • A recent retrospective study of almost 200 patients found that PGD2 was elevated in 9.8% of MCAS patients in random spot urines and 38.3% in 24-hour urine[xi].
  • PGD2 was elevated in 13.2% of MCAS patients in plasma[xi].
  • 9a,11b-PGF2 was elevated in 36.8% in 24-hour urine[xi].
  • 62-100% of systemic mastocytosis patients demonstrate elevated prostaglandin D2 or 9a,11b-PGF2 in urine[ix].
  • Prostaglandins are thermolabile and begin to break down in a minutes. This can contribute to false negative results[xi].
  • Medications that inhibit COX-1 and COX-2, such as NSAIDs, decrease prostaglandin production[xi].

Leukotriene E4

  • Leukotriene E4 is produced by mast cells and several other cell types[ix] including eosinophils, basophils and macrophages.
  • A recent retrospective study of almost 200 patients found that LTE4 was elevated in 4.4 % of MCAS patients in random spot urines and 8.3% in 24-hour urine[xi].
  • 44-50% of systemic mastocytosis patients demonstrate elevated leukotriene E4 in urine[ix].
  • Medications that inhibit 5-LO, such as lipoxygenase inhibitors, decrease leukotriene production[xii].

Chromogranin A

  • Chromogranin A is produced by mast cells and several other cell types including chromaffin cells and beta cells.
  • Proton pump inhibitors can cause increased values during testing[xi].
  • A 2014 paper reported chromogranin A was elevated in 12% of MCAS patients and 63% of systemic mastocytosis patients tested[ix].

Heparin

  • Heparin is a very specific mediator for mast cell activation[ix].
  • Heparin is extremely heat sensitive. The sample must be kept on ice or refrigerated at all times[ix].
  • Venous occlusion of upper arm for ten minutes has been successful in provoking mast cell activation leading to heparin release[ix].
  • A 2014 paper reported plasma heparin was elevated in 59% of MCAS patients and 47% of systemic mastocytosis patients tested[ix].
  • A recent retrospective study of almost 200 patients found that plasma heparin was elevated in 28.9% tested[ix].

 

References

[i] Theoharides TC, et al. (2012). Mast cells and inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(1), 21-33.

[ii] Picard M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clinical Therapeutics, 35(5), 548-562.

[iii] Akin C, et al. (2010). Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(6), 1099-1104.e4

[iv] Valent P, et al. (2012). Definitions, criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell activation syndromes: a consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 157(3), 215-225.

[v] Lueke AJ, et al. (2016). Analytical and clinical validation of an LC-MS/MS method for urine leukotriene E4: a marker of systemic mastocytosis. Clin Biochem, 49(13-14), 979-982.

[vi] Payne V, Kam PCA. (2004). Mast cell tryptase: a review of its physiology and clinical significance. Anaesthesia, 59(7), 695-703.

[vii] Phadia AB. ImmunoCAP® Tryptase in anaphylaxis. Retrieved from: http://www.phadia.com/Global/Market%20Companies/Sweden/Best%C3%A4ll%20information/Filer%20(pdf)/ImmunoCAP_Tryptase_anafylaxi.pdf

[viii] Sprung J, et al. (2015). Presence or absence of elevated acute total serum tryptase by itself is not a definitive marker for an allergic reaction. Anesthesiology, 122(3), 713-717.

[ix] Vysniauskaite M, et al. (2015). Determination of plasma heparin level improves identification of systemic mast cell activation disease. PLoS One, 10(4), e0124912

[x] Zenker N, Afrin LB. (2015). Utilities of various mast cell mediators in diagnosing mast cell activation syndrome. Blood, 126(5174).

[xi] Afrin LB. “Presentation, diagnosis and management of mast cell activation syndrome.”  Mast Cells, edited by David B. Murray, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013, 155-231.

[xii] Hui KP, et al. (1991). Effect of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor on leukotriene generation and airway responses after allergen challenge in asthmatic patients. Thorax, 46, 184-189.

The Provider Primer Series: Diagnosis and natural history of systemic mastocytosis (ISM, SSM, ASM)

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a primary hematologic disorder marked by the excessive proliferation of mast cells.

Neoplastic nature of mastocytosis:

  • Mast cells produced in this disease are neoplastic and may have some or all of the following markers: presence of somatic gain-of-function mutation at codon 816 of CKIT (KIT), usually, but not always, the D816V mutation; expression of CD2 or CD25 on mast cell surface; atypical spindled morphology of mast cells[i].
  • Mastocytosis is a neoplastic condition that is not described exclusively by excessive population of mast cells. Mast cell hyperplasia can occur in response to a number of conditions including chronic urticaria[ii], irritable bowel syndrome[iii], and other hematologic neoplasia, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and myeloproliferative conditions[iv].
  • To meet criteria for SM, mast cell infiltration must be dense with at least 15 mast cells per cluster. In many instances, there is not a validated range of mast cells/hpf in healthy controls[iv].
Table 1: Diagnostic criteria for systemic mastocytosis[v]

1 major and 1 minor criterion; or 3 minor criteria

Major Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous organ
Minor In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal. Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25 Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher.

 

Presence of dense infiltrates:

  • The hallmark sign of systemic mastocytosis is multifocal dense infiltration of an organ that is not the skin. Despite this fact, it is possible to biopsy negative while still having SM. A 2004 study reported the pathological findings of bilateral bone marrow biopsies for 23 patients. 83% of patients demonstrated positive biopsy for SM bilaterally while 17% of patients had only one positive biopsy[vi].
  • One study found that 20% of ISM patients did not have dense infiltration of mast cells in bone marrow[vii].

Tryptase level in systemic mastocytosis:

  • Tryptase ≥20 ng/mL is a minor criterion for SM. In order to meet this criterion, tryptase must be ≥20 ng/mL at baseline, not during or following a reactive or anaphylactic event. Per Phadia, producer of ImmunoCAP® Tryptase test, it can take up to fourteen days for tryptase to return to baseline[viii]. However, other sources recommend shorter time to baseline, as low as “24 hours after clinical signs and symptoms have completely subsided”[ix].
  • 20-30% of SM patients do not meet the minor criterion of tryptase level ≥20 ng/mL[xiii].

Detection of CKIT D816V mutation:

  • The CKIT D816V mutation may not be detected in peripheral blood in a positive patient. Bone marrow aspirate is the preferred sample type for reliable testing for this mutation[xii].
  • One study reported as few as 78% of ISM patients were positive for the CKIT D816V mutation in bone marrow[xiii].

Natural history of indolent systemic mastocytosis:

  • Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) is SM that does not meet criteria for smoldering systemic mastocytosis, aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia.
  • ISM is largely described by mediator release symptoms and increased risk of anaphylaxis. Mast cell infiltration does not cause appreciable organ dysfunction in this variant[x].
  • Progression from ISM to SSM occurred in about 8% of patients in a cohort of 74. In this same cohort, 4% ISM patients progressed to ASM[xi]. The risk of leukemic transformation from ISM was 0.6% in a cohort of 159[xii].
  • Organomegaly can present without loss of function at any level of hematologic disease in SM. Organ swelling may be stable over long periods of time without progression to aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM)[x].
  • Lifespan for indolent systemic mastocytosis is normal[x].
Table 2: Diagnostic criteria for smoldering systemic mastocytosis

 (2 or 3 B findings in addition to meeting criteria for systemic mastocytosis)[i]

B findings Increased mast cell burden (>30% mast cell aggregates on bone marrow biopsy and/or serum tryptase >200 ng/mL) Hypercellular marrow, signs of myelodysplasia or myeloproliferation in absence of MDS or MPN Organ swelling without deficit of organ function (hepatomegaly without ascites, palpable splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy >2 cm)

 

Natural history of smoldering systemic mastocytosis:

  • Smoldering systemic mastocytosis (SSM) is defined by increased systemic mast cell burden, presence of markers associated with progression toward ASM (B findings), and potential need for cytoreduction[xiii].
  • SSM can remain stable for many years, even decadesix. In a cohort of 22 patients with SSM, 1 transformed to acute leukemia and 3 progressed to ASM[xiv].
  • Lifespan may be shortened in SSM. A widely reported study found an average lifespan of 10 years but reported that death was often unrelated to mastocytosis and in some cases was of natural old age[xiii].
Table 3: Diagnostic criteria for aggressive systemic mastocytosis

(1 or more C finding in addition to meeting criteria for systemic mastocytosis)[i]

C findings One or more cytopenias (absolute neutrophil count <1000/µl; Hemoglobin <10g/dl; platelets <100000/µl) Hepatomegaly with ascites, elevated liver enzymes with or without portal hypertension Splenomegaly with hypersplenism Malabsorption evidenced by low albumin and weight loss Large osteolysis and/or severe osteoporosis and pathologic fractures (2 or more fractures as direct result of mast cell activity)

 

Natural history of aggressive systemic mastocytosis:

  • Aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM) is defined by significant organ damage and failure as a direct result of mast cell infiltrationxv. Lifespan is often significantly shortened and can be as short as three years[ix] .
  • ASM generally follows one of two paths: a slow progressing form that resembles SSM but has C findings; or a rapidly progressing form that resembles mast cell leukemia. In rapidly progressing ASM, the patient may lose the CKIT D816V mutation[ix] .
  • ASM is managed with cytoreduction but patient response is often short lived. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other kinase inhibitors are also used in this population[ix] .
  • In treatment resistant cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplant offers an experimental option. One study on HSCT in advanced systemic mastocytosis included seven ASM patients. 3 (43%) achieved complete remission; 3 (43%) demonstrated progression free survival at the three year mark[xv].

References:

[i] Arber DA, et al. (2016). The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Blood, 127(20), 2391-2405.

[ii] Minnei F, et al. (2006). Chronic urticaria is associated with mast cell infiltration in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Virchows Arch, 448(3), 262-268.

[iii] Guilarte M, et al. Diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients show mast cell activation and hyperplasia in the jejunum. Gut, 56, 203-209.

[iv] Hamilton MJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation syndrome a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 128, 147-152.

[v] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[vi] Butterfield JH, Li, CY. (2004). Bone marrow biopsies for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis: is one biopsy sufficient? Hematopathology, Am J Clin Pathol, 121: 264-267.

[vii] Sanchez-Munoz L, et al. (2011). Evaluation of the WHO criteria for the classification of patients with mastocytosis. Mod Pathol, 24(9), 1157-1168.

[viii] Phadia AB. ImmunoCAP® Tryptase: Clinical utility of Total Tryptase. Retrieved from: http://www.phadia.com/Global/Market%20Companies/Sweden/Best%C3%A4ll%20information/Filer%20(pdf)/ImmunoCAP_Tryptase_Clin_Util.pdf

[ix] Schwartz LB. (2006). Diagnostic value of tryptase in anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, 26(3), 451-463.

[x] Valent P, et al. (2010). How I treat patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis. Blood, 116(26), 5812-5817.

[xi] Matito A, et al. (2013). Serum tryptase monitoring in indolent systemic mastocytosis: association with disease features and patient outcome. PLoS One, 8(10), e76116.

[xii] Lim KH, et al. (2009). Systemic mastocytosis in 342 consecutive adults: survival studies and prognostic factors. Blood, 113(23), 5727-5736.

[xiii] Pardanini A. (2013). How I treat patients with indolent and smoldering mastocytosis (rare conditions but difficult to manage). Blood, 121, 3085-3094.

[xiv] Pardanini A. (2010). WHO subvariants of indolent mastocytosis: clinical details and prognostic evaluation in 159 consecutive adults. Blood, 115, 150-151.

[xv] Ustun C, et al. (2014). Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for advanced systemic mastocytosis. J Clin Oncol, 32(29), 3264-3274.

[xvi] Pardanini A. (2013). Systemic mastocytosis in adults: 2013 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. American Journal of Hematology, 88(7, 612-624).

[xvii] Valent P, et al. (2003). Aggressive systemic mastocytosis and related mast cell disorders: current treatment options and proposed response criteria. Leuk Res, 27(7), 635-641.

The Provider Primer Series: Diagnostic criteria of systemic mastocytosis and all subvariants

World Health Organization Classification

  • Mastocytosis was classified by the WHO as a myeloproliferative neoplasm for a number of years. In 2016, the WHO placed mastocytosis into its own category, separate from myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • In a paper summarizing changes to WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias, the author stated that “mastocytosis…is no longer considered a subgroup of the MPNs due to its unique clinical and pathologic features, ranging from indolent cutaneous disease to aggressive systemic disease, and is now a separate disease category in the classification[i].”
Table 1: WHO Classification of Mastocytosisi
Category Subtype
Cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) Cutaneous mastocytosis (CM), including maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM, previously called urticaria pigmentosa); solitary mastocytoma of the skin; diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis*Author’s note: Telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP) is considered a variant of maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM, previously called urticaria pigmentosa)
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM)
Smoldering systemic mastocytosis (SSM)
Systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic neoplasm (SM-AHN)
Aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM)
Mast cell leukemia (MCL)
Mast cell sarcoma (MCS) Mast cell sarcoma (MCS)

 

Diagnostic criteria for subvariants of systemic mastocytosis

Table 2: Diagnostic criteria for indolent systemic mastocytosis[ii] 1 major and 1 minor criterion; or 3 minor criteria
Major Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous organ
Minor In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal. Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25 Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher.

 

Table 3: Examples that meet minimum criteria for indolent systemic mastocytosis
Scenario 1:

1 major criterion, 1 minor criterion

Major criterion: Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous organ Minor criterion: Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher.
Scenario 2:

major criterion, 1 minor criterion

Major criterion: Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous. Minor criterion: In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal
Scenario 3:

1 major criterion, 1 minor criterion

Major criterion: Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous Minor criterion: Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ
Scenario 4:

1 major criterion, 1 minor criterion

Major criterion: Multifocal dense infiltrates of mast cells (15 or more in aggregate) detected in sections of bone marrow and/or extracutaneous Minor criterion: Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25
Scenario 5:

3 minor criteria

Minor criterion: Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25 Minor criterion: Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ Minor criterion: Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher.
Scenario 6:

3 minor criteria

Minor criterion: Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25 Minor criterion: Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ Minor criterion: In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal
Scenario 7:

3 minor criteria

Minor criterion: Mast cells in bone marrow, blood or other extracutaneous organ that co-expresses CD-117 with CD2 and/or CD25 Minor criterion:Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher. Minor criterion: In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal
Scenario 8:

3 minor criteria

Minor criterion: In biopsy sections, more than 25% of mast cells in infiltrated space are spindle-shaped or otherwise morphologically abnormal; or, of all mast cells in bone marrow aspirate smears, more than 25% mast cells are immature or abnormal Minor criterion:Baseline serum tryptase of 20 ng/ml or higher. Minor criterion: Detection of CKIT mutation at codon 816 in bone marrow, blood or extracutaneous organ

Systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic neoplasm (SM-AHN) is essentially treated as two separate condition: systemic mastocytosis and an associated hematologic neoplastic condition. Accordingly, the diagnostic criteria for the systemic mastocytosis aspect of this diagnosis is the same as described here.

Table 4: Diagnostic criteria for smoldering systemic mastocytosis (2 or 3 B findings)[ii]
B findings Increased mast cell burden (>30% mast cell aggregates on bone marrow biopsy and/or serum tryptase >200 ng/mL) Hypercellular marrow, signs of myelodysplasia or myeloproliferation in absence of MDS or MPN Organ swelling without deficit of organ function (hepatomegaly without ascites, palpable splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy >2 cm)

 

Table 5: Examples that meet the criteria for smoldering systemic mastocytosis (2 or 3 B findings)
Scenario 1:

2 B findings

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis Increased mast cell burden (>30% mast cell aggregates on bone marrow biopsy and/or serum tryptase >200 ng/mL) Hypercellular marrow, signs of myelodysplasia or myeloproliferation in absence of MDS or MPN
Scenario 2:

2 B findings

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis Increased mast cell burden (>30% mast cell aggregates on bone marrow biopsy and/or serum tryptase >200 ng/mL) Organ swelling without deficit of organ function (hepatomegaly without ascites, palpable splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy >2 cm)
Scenario 3:

2 B findings

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis Hypercellular marrow, signs of myelodysplasia or myeloproliferation in absence of MDS or MPN Organ swelling without deficit of organ function (hepatomegaly without ascites, palpable splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy >2 cm)
Scenario 4:

3 B findings

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis Increased mast cell burden (>30% mast cell aggregates on bone marrow biopsy and/or serum tryptase >200 ng/mL) Hypercellular marrow, signs of myelodysplasia or myeloproliferation in absence of MDS or MPN Organ swelling without deficit of organ function (hepatomegaly without ascites, palpable splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy >2 cm)

 

Table 6: Diagnostic criteria for aggressive systemic mastocytosis (1 or more C finding)[ii]
C findings One or more cytopenias (absolute neutrophil count <1000/µl; Hemoglobin <10g/dl; platelets <100000/µl) Hepatomegaly with ascites, elevated liver enzymes with or without portal hypertension Splenomegaly with hypersplenism Malabsorption evidenced by low albumin and weight loss Large osteolysis and/or severe osteoporosis and pathologic fractures (2 or more fractures as direct result of mast cell activity)

 

Table 7: Examples that meet the minimum criteria for aggressive systemic mastocytosis (1 or more C finding) 
Scenario 1:

1 C finding

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis 1 or more B findings may be present, not a requirement One or more cytopenias (absolute neutrophil count <1000/µl; Hemoglobin <10g/dl; platelets <100000/µl)
Scenario 2:

1 C finding

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis 1 or more B findings may be present, not a requirement Malabsorption evidenced by low albumin and weight loss
Scenario 3:

1 C finding

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis 1 or more B findings may be present, not a requirement Large osteolysis and/or severe osteoporosis and pathologic fractures (2 or more fractures as direct result of mast cell activity)
Scenario 4:

1 C finding

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis 1 or more B findings may be present, not a requirement Hepatomegaly with ascites, elevated liver enzymes with or without portal hypertension
Scenario 5:

1 C finding

Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis 1 or more B findings may be present, not a requirement Splenomegaly with hypersplenism

 

Table 8: Diagnostic criteria for mast cell leukemia[iii]
Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis Mast cells compromise 20% of all nucleated cells in blood smears

 

Table 9: Examples that meet the minimum criteria for mast cell leukemia
Scenario 1 Meets criteria for systemic mastocytosis B findings may be present but are not required C findings may be present but are not required Mast cells compromise 20% of all nucleated cells in blood smears

 

[i] Arber DA, et al. (2016). The 2016 revisioin to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Blood, 127(20), 2391-2405.

[ii] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[iii] Valent P, et al. (2014). Refined diagnostic criteria and classification of mast cell leukemia (MCL) and myelomastocytic leukemia (MML): a consensus proposal. Ann Oncol, 25(9), 1691-1700.

The Provider Primer Series: Cutaneous mastocytosis/ Mastocytosis in the skin

Mast cell disease: Categories

  • Mast cell disease is the collective term given to several distinct conditions mediated by mast cell dysfunction.  Speaking broadly, mast cell disease has two forms: mastocytosis, a clonal disease marked by excessive proliferation and infiltration of mast cells; and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a disease that presents similarly to mastocytosis but demonstrates no clear indication of excessive proliferation. In addition, monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome (MMAS) can be viewed as straddling the two groupings with markers of clonality but minimum evidence to suggest overproduction of mast cells[i].
  • Mastocytosis has two forms: cutaneous, in which excessive mast cell infiltration is confined to the skin; and systemic, in which an organ that is not skin that is affected by excessive mast cell infiltration. Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) often have cutaneous mastocytosis; in this instance, this is called systemic mastocytosis with mastocytosis in the skin[ii].

Mastocytosis in the skin

  • Cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) is a proliferative condition marked by increased mast cell infiltration of the skin.  There are three subvariants of cutaneous mastocytosis: maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM), formerly known as urticarial pigmentosa (UP); diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM); and solitary mastocytoma of skin[ii].
  • Mast cell density in lesions is usually increased 4-8x above the density in healthy controls. However, some patients have mast cell density comparable to that in healthy controls[ii].
  • All forms of cutaneous mastocytosis can be found in children. Over 78% present by 13 months and some at birth[v]. Childhood onset CM often resolves by adolescence but not always[ii].
  • Most patients with mast cell lesions in childhood have CM rather than SM. Conversely, most patients who develop these macules in adulthood have systemic mastocytosis with mastocytosis in the skin[ii].
  • MPCM (UP) is overwhelmingly the dominant presentation of mastocytosis in the skin. Over 80% of all mastocytosis patients demonstrate the type of cutaneous involvement[ii].
  • In children, MPCM lesions are usually large and have variable morphology which may change over time. In adults, MPCM often occurs as small red/brown macules and may result in few lesions or cover the majority of the body[iii].
  • Telangiectasia macularis eruptive perstans (TMEP) is described as telangiectatic red macules generally found above the midtrunk. While previously thought to be a discrete entity, TMEP is now recognized as a form of MPCM[ii].
  • DCM is almost exclusively found in children with few adult onset cases. It does not present as discrete lesions but rather generalized erythema. Pachydermia may also be present, as well as darkening of the skin[ii].
  • DCM can be associated with formation of severe bullae from a variety of triggers, including rubbing the skin, infections and teething. Due to mast cell release of heparin, it is not unusual for skin wounds to bleed excessively[ii].
  • A mastocytoma is a low grade mast cell tumor most often found on the skin. It is frequently raised and yellow or brown in color. Touching the lesion usually evokes a strong wheal and flare reaction. Sweating may also occur. Blistering may be present[ii].

Diagnosis of mastocytosis in the skin

  • While a biopsy is the definitive diagnostic method, positive Darier’s sign is present in most children and many adults with mastocytosis in the skin. Use of antihistamines can suppress a positive Darier’s sign[ii].
  • Biopsies from lesional skin should be stained for mast cells using toluidine blue or Giemsa-Wright stain; evaluated for CD117, CD25 and CD2 using IHC; and evaluated for activating mutations in the CKIT gene using PCR or sequencing methods[i] .
Diagnostic criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis  (requires one major and one minor criterion)[iii]
Major Minor
Typical mast cell rash, usually maculopapular, or atypical rash with positive Darier’s sign Dense infiltration by tryptase positive mast cells, >15 mast cells/cluster or >20 mast cells/x40 magnification hpf if not clustered
Activating CKIT mutation detected in biopsy from skin lesion

 

Symptoms and treatment of mastocytosis in the skin

  • Common symptoms localized to the skin include flushing, itching, burning, hives and blistering[iv].
  • Mediator release symptoms can affect other organs regardless of whether or not they have systemic mastocytosis. Flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and low blood pressure have been reported among other symptoms. Wheezing, shortness of breath and rarely cyanosis may be present. Anaphylaxis can also occur[iii].
  • Treatment for cutaneous mastocytosis/mastocytosis in the skin relies upon histamine blockade with H1 inverse agonists and H2 antagonists; cromolyn sodium; leukotriene antagonists; and PUVA treatment in severe cases[v].
  • In treatment resistant cases, systemic glucocorticoids and topical cromolyn may be used.  In some instances, mastocytomas may be excisedi. Anaphylaxis should be treated with epinephrine per current guidelines[v].

[i] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. J Hematol Oncol, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[ii] Hartmann K, et al. (2016). Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(1), 35-45.

[iii] Valent P, et al. (2007). Standards and standardization in mastocytosis: consensus statements on diagnostics, treatment recommendations and response criteria. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 37, 435-453.

[iv] Carter MC, et al. (2014). Mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am, 34(1), 10.1016/j.iac.2013.09.001

[v] Castells M, et al. (2011). Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis in children. Am J Clin Dermatol, 12(4), 259-270.

 

Patient questions: Everything you wanted to know about tryptase

I get a lot of questions about tryptase.

Tryptase is one of the most well characterized mast cell mediators and the first to be unique to mast cells. Serum tryptase is the most well known test for systemic mastocytosis and anaphylaxis. But mast cell patients sometimes test negative, complicating their lives and care.

There are a lot of reasons why mast cell patients test negative for tryptase. One reason is that a lot of the understanding of anaphylaxis hinged upon the ability of mediators to get quickly to the bloodstream to quickly spread to various organ systems. While this does happen, not all mediators move at the same speed. Tryptase is released from granules as large complexes with other mediators, like heparin. It takes time for it to dissociate enough to be active.

Tryptase also does a lot of things and breaks down lots of things. If there are things for it to break down in the immediate environment, it will still break them down whether or not you are having anaphylaxis. Eventually, the tryptase that wasn’t used up breaking things down gets to the bloodstream. This is why the ideal time to test for tryptase in blood is about 90-120 minutes after an allergic event/severe reaction/anaphylaxis. Following severe reaction/anaphylaxis, it can take about two weeks for tryptase to return to baseline.

The reason that most patients with systemic mastocytosis have high tryptase levels is because they have more mast cells and many mast cells secrete tryptase at rest. This means that even if they aren’t activated, they will still release tryptase regularly. The reason why baseline tryptase level is such an important marker for SM is because it distinguishes mastocytosis from anaphylaxis.

However, we have learned a lot about tryptase in the last several years, and it doesn’t seem like all mast cells secrete tryptase all the time. Mast cells are heavily influenced by their environment and the cells around them. Some mast cells make more tryptase than others and some release tryptase regularly and some don’t.

About 80-90% of SM patients have a baseline tryptase over 20 ng/ml. This means they tested over 20 ng/ml on two separate occasions when they had not recently had a severe event. But not all SM patients have elevated tryptase, but that doesn’t mean they don’t have more mast cells than usual. It is possible that their mast cells are concentrated in places in the body where tryptase will be used up before it gets to the bloodstream or that it will take too long to get there for the test to catch it. There is some evidence that tryptase testing is less reliable in overweight and obese women, and I’m sure that’s true. Some mast cells live in adipose tissue and that tissue is harder for large molecules to move through, like tryptase.

Our understanding of MCAS is that there is aberrant mast cell behavior without an abnormal number of mast cells. These patients generally have repeat negative biopsies and so the assumption is that they definitely don’t have SM. But tryptase is a crummy test and I think as a community we can’t really know if they have too many mast cells until we have more robust tests. I’m not saying MCAS patients have too many mast cells, but I’m saying I don’t really trust tryptase for detection of reaction/anaphylaxis in MCAS patients or, to be frank, in anyone.

So why do we still use tryptase if it’s a crummy test? It’s not a crummy test for everything. In particular, it is a very good indicator of disease progression (ISM to SSM to ASM) in patients who have a lot of mast cells. A steadily increasing tryptase level means that there is increased proliferation and can indicate moving to a state where organ damage is more likely. So it is helpful for those people. It’s not helpful for everyone else.

Tryptase testing is not affected in a meaningful way by any medications that I can think of. Mast cell stabilizers can decrease degranulation, but tryptase can also be released in other ways, and there has not been any demonstration that mast cell stabilizers are effective enough to affect this test. Antihistamines/other meds/steroids don’t affect tryptase level.

There was a consensus paper that came out several years ago in which it was posited that an increase in tryptase level of 2 ng/ml + 2% from baseline was indicative of mast cell activation and could be used in the diagnosis of MCAS. This is not widely agreed to in the US and the data supporting this has never been published so I personally understand the reluctance of providers to acknowledge this as a marker of mast cell activation.

The other big reason why mast cell patients may test normal for tryptase is that their reactions/anaphylaxis are not mediated by a pathway that triggers tryptase release like IgE does.  IgG activation and other pathways do not always demonstrate tryptase release.

I think I got everything. If you have more questions about tryptase, let me know.

Kounis Syndrome: Diagnosis (Part 2 of 4)

Separating the symptoms of the coronary syndrome from those caused by the coincident allergic reaction is difficult.  Acute chest pain is the hallmark symptom of Kounis Syndrome. While other symptoms may be present, such as nausea, fainting, and shortness of breath, they can also be attributed to the allergic reaction.  Likewise, many of the clinical markers for KS may also appear during anaphylaxis, including cold extremities, very fast or very low heart rate, low blood pressure, palpitations, and sweating. Given the significant overlap in presentation with allergic symptoms, KS is not often diagnosed, though it likely affects a larger population than represented in literature.

Troponins and cardiac enzymes like creatinine kinase are important markers for coronary syndrome, but they are not always elevated in KS. Measurement of mast cell mediators like histamine or tryptase is not always accurate due to the short lifetime of these molecules in the body.  Released histamine is only present in blood for about eight minutes, while tryptase has a half-life of about ninety minutes.

An electrocardiogram (EKG) should be performed as part of the diagnostic process.  A number of signs have been seen in KS patients, including atrial or ventricular fibrillation, bigeminal rhythm, heart block, nodal rhythm, sinus bradycardia or tachycardia, ST segment depression or elevation, T-wave flattening or inversion, QRS or QT prolongation, and ventricular ectopics.  Beyond EKG, there are additional markers that may be present with Kounis Syndrome.  A chest x-ray may show an enlarged heart.  Echocardiogram may show dilated cardiac chambers. Angiography of the coronary artery can reveal spasm or thrombosis. In coronary biopsies, infiltration by mast cells and eosinophils may be found.  Elevation of eosinophils in the blood may also be present.

Having no history of coronary artery disease can make diagnosis more complicated for KS Type I patients, who also may have normal troponins and EKG. Dynamic cardiac MRI with gadolinium can show a subendocardial lesion in patients with KS Type I. Newer imaging techniques such as SPECT have been able to identify myocardial ischemia in KS Type I where coronary angiography had showed no irregularities.

References:

Kounis NG, et al. Kounis Syndrome (allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction). In: Angina Pectoris: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment 2008.

Lippi G, et al. Cardiac troponin I is increased in patients admitted to the emergency department with severe allergic reactions. A case-control study. International Journal of Cardiology 2015, 194: 68-69.

Kounis NG, et al. The heart and coronary arteries as primary target in severe allergic reactions: Cardiac troponins and the Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. International Journal of Cardiology 2015, 198: 83-84.

Fassio F, et al. Kounis syndrome: a concise review with focus on management. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016; 30:7-10.

Kounis Syndrome: Aspects on pathophysiology and management. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016.

Kounis NG. Kounis syndrome: an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management. Clin Chem Lab Med 2016

Kounis NG. Coronary hypersensitivity disorder: the Kounis Syndrome. Clinical Therapeutics 2013, 35 (5): 563-571.

The difference between CD117+ and CKIT+

Hey, everyone –

I received a request to clarify the difference between being CD117+ and CKIT+.

CD117 is a receptor on the outside of mast cells. It is normal and all mast cells are CD117+. This is how we identify them as mast cells. If you have a bone marrow biopsy done and it says no CD117 is found, this is not because there are no mast cells there. It is because the test for CD117 isn’t sensitive enough to find those few mast cells. This is called the limit of detection (LoD).

When there is more of something present, it is easier to find it. Say I am in a field and there are five tennis balls scattered. If I walk around for a long time, maybe I will find three tennis balls. But if there is only one tennis ball to be found, I may not find it. I have less of a chance of finding it because there aren’t as many so it’s harder.

Being CD117+ is NORMAL for mast cells. It just means that it’s a mast cell. But mast cells that are constantly activated have more CD117+ on their outside membranes. Think of it like the tennis balls – if there are five CD117 receptors on a mast cell, it’s easier for the test to find one. If there is only one, the test might miss it.

CD117 is also called the CKIT receptor. It is a receptor that gives mast cells the signal to stay alive and encourage more mast cells to mature. If you get a biopsy report back and it is CD117+, then it will say CD117. The reason the report doesn’t call it positive for CKIT is historical and has to do with the fact that it was identified first as CD117 and later called CKIT because of similarities with other proteins of similar names.

When mast cell patients say CKIT+, it is a misnomer. It means that they are positive for the D816V mutation in CKIT, which is a marker for systemic mastocytosis. So being CD117+ and CKIT+ are not the same. CD117+ just means mast cell. CKIT+ (D816V) means neoplastic mast cell.

The D816V mutation changes the shape of the CD117 (CKIT) receptor and tells the mast cell to stay alive and encourage other mast cells to mature even when it shouldn’t.

Being CD117+ does not affect medication profile for mast cell disease at all. It just means it’s a mast cell. Some drugs are approved only for CKIT- patients (negative for D816V).

CD117/CKIT is a tyrosine kinase, which is a kind of protein. There are hundreds of known tyrosine kinases, CD117/CKIT is just one. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can affect cells by blocking the signal to stay alive. Tyrosine kinases do not take up tyrosine from the environment, it has literally nothing to do with tyrosine metabolism at all.

If there any questions, ask in the comments.

Cardiovascular manifestations of mast cell disease (Part 1 of 5)

Mast cells are present in the cardiovascular system under normal conditions both in the heart and near vasculature, often in spaces close to nerve endings.  They perform a variety of necessary functions including participating in the pathway to generate the hormone angiotensin II, which encourages an increase in blood pressure.  Mast cells in the heart and vasculature are usually positive for both chymase and tryptase in granules. Mast cells in the cardiovascular system have also been tied to a number of conditions, including atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and aneurysm.

Mast cell patients may experience a number of cardiovascular symptoms or events. 29% of SM patients and at least 20% of MCAS patients report palpitations and supraventricular tachycardia.  31% of patients with mast cell activation disease (MCAS, MMAS, SM) experience episodic or chronic elevation in arterial blood pressure due to mast cell activation. Ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest and Kounis Syndrome can occur in mast cell patients due to mast cell activation.  Few cases of heart failure in SM patients have been reported.

Kounis Syndrome is an acute coronary syndrome provoked by mast cell mediator release. In one series, ten mast cell patients (5 MCAS, 3 MMAS, 2 ISM) suffered acute coronary syndromes.  These patients reported “oppressive” chest pain of the type commonly seen in ischemic cardiac events.  The triggers for these events were diverse: venom immunotherapy, mepivacaine, exercise, penicillin, general anesthesia, wasp sting, metamizole and moxifloxacin.  In seven patients, the echocardiogram was normal.  In the remaining, left ventricular hypertrophy, anteroseptal hypokinesia, medioapical hypokinesia, inferoseptal akinesis, lateral apical akinesia and left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% were found on echo. Only six patients had elevation of troponin, a test commonly used to diagnose heart attack and acute coronary syndromes.

Mast cell mediators exhibit a wide range of effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Mast cell mediators can affect release of norepinephrine by sympathetic nervous system, contributing to arrhythmias.  In some instances, release of norepinephrine has been linked to sudden cardiac death, although not linked specifically to mast cell patients. Histamine actually decreases norepinephrine release by binding to H3 receptors on nerve endings.

As mentioned above, mast cells participate in modulating the level of angiotensin II. Mast cells release renin, which leads to the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II then binds to AT1 receptors on sympathetic nerve endings, raising blood pressure. Angiotensin II can also cause arrhythmias without involving the nervous system.

References:

Kolck UW, et al. Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease. Translation Research 2016; x:1-10.

Gonzalez-de-Olano D, et al. Mast cell-related disorders presenting with Kounis Syndrome. International Journal of Cardiology 2012: 161(1): 56-58.

Kennedy S, et al. Mast cells and vascular diseases. Pharmacology & Therapeurics 2013; 138: 53-65.