|Hormone||Location released||Major functions||Interaction with mast cells||Reference|
Adrenal gland (medulla)
|Inhibit prolactin released from pituitary
Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Inhibit norepinephrine release
|Enhances mast cell degranulation
Perpetuates immediate and late phase hypersensitivity reactions
H3 receptor activation inhibits dopamine production
Dopamine is released by mast cells
H1 inverse agonists increase dopamine release
Histamine increases dopamine release
|Mori T, et al. D1-like dopamine receptors antagonist inhibits cutaneous immune reactions mediated by Th2 and mast cells. Journal of Dermatological Science 2013: 71, 37-44.
Xue L, et al. The effects of D3R on TLR4 signaling involved in the regulation of METH-mediated mast cell activation. International Immunopharmacology 2016: 36. 187-198.
|Endothelin||Stomach||Promotes smooth muscle contraction of stomach
Very potent vasoconstrictor
|Activates mucosal mast cells
Mast cells regulate endothelin levels to prevent loss of blood flow to tissues
|Boros M, et al. Endothelin-1 induces mucosal mast cell degranulation and tissue injury via ETA receptors. Clin Sci (Lond) 2007: 103(48), 31S-34S.
Hultner L, Ehrenreich H. Mast cells and endothelin-1: a life-saving biological liaison. Trends Immunol 2005: 26(5), 235-238.
|Epinephrine/ adrenaline||Adrenal gland (medulla), sympathetic nervous system||Fight or flight response
Increases heart rate, force of heart contraction, blood pressure, energy breakdown, production of ACTH, bloodflow and energy to the brain and muscles
Suppresses nonessential functions and significantly decreases GI motility and excretion of urine and stool
|Epinephrine inhibits IgE mediated released of histamine, prostaglandins and TNF
Epinephrine inhibits mast cell proliferation, adhesion and movement within the body SCF reduces action of epinephrine on mast cells by decreasing B2 adrenergic receptors
|Cruse G, et al. Counterregulation of beta(2)-adrenoceptor function in human mast cells by stem cell factor. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010: 125(1), 257-263.
Scanzano A, Cosentino M. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review. Front Pharmacol 2015.
|Erythropoietin||Kidney||Stimulate red blood cell production
Protects nerve cells and tissues
|During low oxygen events, mast cells express receptors for erythropoietin
Erythropoietin can bind at the CKIT receptor
Decreases inflammatory response to infection (decreases IL-6 and TNF)
|Wiedenmann T, et al. Erythropoietin acts as an anti-inflammatory signal on murine mast cells. Mol Immunol 2015: 65(1), 68-76.|
|Estradiol and other estrogens||Ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, testes||Drive female secondary sex characteristics
Increase metabolism, uterine and endometrial growth, bone production, and the release of cholesterol in bile
Increase production of proteins in liver, cortisol, sex hormone binding globulin, somatostatin, clotting factors II, VII, IX, X, antithrombin III and plasminogen, HDL, triglycerides
Decrease LDL, production of adipose tissue, GI motility
Modulate salt and water retention
Inhibits programmed cell death of germ cells
|E2 is a very potent mast cell degranulator
E2 drives mast cell degranulation in ovaries to trigger ovulation
Enhances IgE mediated degranulation
Increased production of leukotrienes
Increases mast cell density in ovaries
|Zaitsu M, et al. Estradiol activates mast cells via a non-genomic estrogen receptor-a and calcium influx. Mol Immunol 2007: 44(8), 1977-1985.
Zierau O, et al. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behavior. Front Immunol 2012: 3, 169.
|Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)||Pituitary||Stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles
Stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules, production of sperm and production of androgen binding protein
|Triggers mast cell degranulation
Increases mast cell density in ovaries
|Theoharides TC, Stewart JM. Genitourinary mast cells and survival. Transl Androl Urol 2015: 4(5), 579-586.
Jaiswal K, Krishna A. Effects of hormones on the number, distribution and degranulation of mast cells in the ovarian complex of mice. Acta Physiol Hung 1996: 84(2), 183-190.
|Gastric inhibitory polypeptide/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)||Duodenum, jejunum||Triggers release of insulin
Involved in fatty acid metabolism
Involved in bone formation
|May suppress release of stomach acid triggered by histamine||McIntosh CHS, et al. Chapter 15 Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide; GIP). Vitamins & Hormones 2009: 80, 409-471.|
|Gastrin||Stomach, duodenum, pancreas||Release of gastric acid
Release of pepsinogen, the precursor to pepsin
Triggers secretion of pancreatic enzyme
Triggers emptying of gallbladder
Increases stomach motility
|Triggers release of histamine in enterochromaffin-like cells to trigger gastric acid secretion
Triggers mast cell degranulation
Gastrin releasing peptide, which induces gastrin release, triggers histaminergic itching response
|Akiyama T, et al. Roles of glutamate, substance P, and gastrin-releasing peptide as spinal neurotransmitters of histaminergic and nonhistaminergic itch. Pain 2014: 155, 80-92.|