Mast cell mutations: JAK2 and myeloproliferative neoplasms

Janus kinase 2 is also a tyrosine kinase like CKIT, but it is not a receptor on the outside of the cell. JAK2 is a helper protein that helps other molecules to send signals. It also affects the signaling of many clinically important molecules, like interleukin 3, interleukin 5, interleukin 5, interferon gamma, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin, growth hormone and prolactin. These molecules are involved in cell proliferation and the inflammatory response.

JAK2 mutation V617F seems to make hematopoietic cells more responsive to growth factors, causing excessive proliferation. JAK2 V617F is used as a marker for some Philadelphia negaitve myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph- MPN), which include essential thrombocythemia (ET), an indolent disease in which too many platelets are produced; polycythemia vera (PV), in which too many red cells are produced; and myelofibrosis (MF), in which bone marrow is replaced with connective tissue that cannot make blood cells. JAK2 V617F is present in 40-50% of ET cases, 95% of PV cases, and 60% of MF cases.

In multiple studies, the frequency of JAK2 mutations in SM has ranged from 0-20% depending on the patient group. However, multiple studies have found a frequency of 4.2-5%, which is the generally accepted figure. JAK2 mutation is a strong predictor of myeloproliferative neoplasm but not necessarily of mastocytosis. However, where present in SM patients, it indicates a higher probability of developing another MPN.

In the control group of one study, 10 ISM patients without another myeloprofilerative neoplasm were negative for JAK2 mutation, and 15 MF patients without SM were negative for CKIT mutation. In the patient group, five people had both CKIT+ SM and MF. In four patients, the JAK2 V617F mutation was present. In the four patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation, it was found not only in the myelofibrosis cells (CD15+ myeloid cells), but also in the mast cells. In two of the patients, the CKIT mutation was found in the CD15+ myeloid cells of two patients. The data suggests that the JAK2 mutation may occur before the CKIT mutation in patients who have both SM and an associated hematologic disorder.

One study looked extensively at other mutations present in various types of CKIT+ systemic mastocytosis. The patient group was composed of 39 people, with 10 having ISM, 2 SSM, 5 SM-AHNMD, 15 ASM and 7 MCL. Only 2 patients out of the group were positive for JAK2 mutation. One patient had MCL, the other had SM-AHNMD. Both also had another myeloproliferative neoplasm (in the case of the SM-AHNMD patient, it was MDS.) This study found that presence of at least one other mutation in addition to CKIT D816V was associated with poorer prognosis, although presence of JAK2 V617F was not specifically identified as causing shorter lifespans.

 

References:

Schwaab, Juliana, et al. Comprehensive mutational profiling in advanced systemic mastocytosis. Blood 2013, 122 (14): 2460-2466.

Soucie, Erinn, et al. Molecular basis of mast cell disease. Molecular immunology 2015, 63 (1): 55-60.

J. Molderings. The genetic basis of mast cell activation disease – looking through a glass darkly. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 2014.

Sotlar, Karl, et al. Systemic mastocytosis associated with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. J Mol Diagn Jan 2008; 10(1): 58-66.