Master table of de novo mast cell mediators

 

Mediator Symptoms Pathophysiology
b-FGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) Angiogenesis, proliferation, wound healing, binds heparin
GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor) Rheumatoid arthritis Induces stem cells to make granulocytes and monocycles
IL-1a Fever, insulin resistance, inflammatory pain Activates TNFa, stimulates production of PGE2, nitric oxide, IL-8 and other chemokines
IL-1b Pain, hypersensitivity Autoinflammatory syndromes, regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and death, induces COX2 activity to produce inflammatory molecules
IL-2 Itchiness, psoriasis Regulates T cell differentiation
IL-3 Drives differentiation of several cell types, including mast cells, and proliferation
IL-4 Airway inflammation, allergic asthma Regulates T cell differentiation
IL-5 Eosinophilic allergic disease Activates eosinophils, stimulates proliferation of B cells and antibody secretion, heavily involved in eosinophilic allergic disease
IL-6 Fever, acute phase inflammation, osteoporosis Inhibits TNFa and IL-1, stimulates bone resorption, reduces inflammation in muscle during exercise
IL-9 Asthma, bronchial hypersensitivity Increases cell proliferation and impedes apoptosis of hematopoietic cells
IL-10 Regulates the JAK-STAT pathway, interferes with production of interferons and TNFa.   Exercise increases levels of IL-10
IL-13 Airway disease, goblet cell metaplasia, oversecretion of mucus Induces IgE release from B cells, links allergic inflammation to non-immune cells
IL-16 Allergic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease Attracts activated T cells to inflamed spaces,
IL-18 Linked to several autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Induces release of interferon-g, causes severe inflammatory reactions
Interferon-a Flu like symptoms, malaise, muscle soreness, fever, sore throat, nausea Inhibition of mast cell growth and activity
Interferon-b Flu like symptoms, malaise, muscle soreness, fever, sore throat, nausea Inhibition of mast cell growth and activity
Interferon-g Granuloma formation, chronic asthma Induces production of nitric oxide, IgG2a and IgG3 from B cells, increases production of histamine, airway reactivity and inflammation
Leukotriene B4 Mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, vascular instability, pain Draws white cells to site of inflammation
Leukotriene C4 Mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, vascular instability, pain Draws white cells to site of inflammation
MCP-1 Neuroinflammation, diseases of neuronal degeneration, glomerulonephritis Draws white blood cells to inflamed spaces,
MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) Regulate acute immune response, release triggered by steroids
MIP-1a (macrophage inflammatory protein) Fibrosis Activates granulocytes, nduces release of IL-1, IL-6 and TNFa
Neurotrophin-3 Nerve growth factor
NGF (nerve growth factor) Regulates survival and growth of nerve cells, suppresses inflammation
Nitric oxide Bruising, hematoma formation, excessive bleeding Vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation
PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) Platelet growth factor, growth of blood vessels, wound healing
Platelet activating factor Constriction of airway; urticaria; pain Platelet activation and aggregation, vasodilation
Prostaglandin D2 Flushing, mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, vascular instability, mixed organic brain syndrome, nausea, abdominal pain, neuropsych symptoms, nerve pain Inflammation, pain, bronchoconstriction
Prostaglandin E2 Muscle contractions, cough Draws white blood cells to site of inflammation
RANTES (CCL5) Osteoarthritis Attracts white cells to inflamed spaces, causes proliferation of some white cells
SCF (stem cell factor) Regulates mast cell life cycle, induces histamine release
TGFb (transforming growth factor beta) Bronchial asthma, heart disease, lung fibrosis, telangiectasia, Marfan syndrome, vascular Ehlers syndrome syndrome Regulates vascular and connective tissues
TNFa (tumor necrosis factor) Fever, weight loss, fatigue Regulates death of cells and acute inflammation
VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) Bronchial asthma, diabetes Angiogenesis, draws white cells to inflamed spaces, vasodilation