Tryptase can be a useful tool for measuring progression of systemic mastocytosis. However, it is not used in patients with systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). Patients with SM-AHNMD have systemic mastocytosis and also have another blood disorder that causes excessive proliferation of cells that aren’t mast cells. It is essentially having individual diseases that affect the bone marrow.
The reason tryptase is not tracked in patients with SM-AHNMD is because other proliferative diseases of bone marrow can increase production of mast cells. (Actually, proliferative diseases in most organs can cause increased production of mast cells). This is called mast cell hyperplasia, overproduction of mast cells. It is NOT the same as SM. A patient with no mast cell disease of any kind who has a blood disorder like chronic myelogenous leukemia or essential thrombocythemia could experience an increase in mast cells. It is not uncommon for people with conditions like this to experience allergic symptoms due to mast cell activation.
This can occur for a few reasons. The blood disorder might increase the amount of cells that could become mast cells. The blood disorder could cause increased release and production of molecules that encourage mast cell development. Mast cells are also part of the immune response and heavily involved in tumor biology. Proliferation of another cell type can be interpreted by the body as tumor formation so more mast cells can be made to address the “tumor”, whether or not it actually is a tumor..
A patient with SM-AHNMD may have a baseline tryptase before developing the second blood disorder of 30 ng/mL. (Just making up a number here). After diagnosis with the second blood disorder, a tryptase test could reveal an increase to 35 ng/mL. However, if this were the case, we wouldn’t know if the additional tryptase is coming from mast cells made by SM ramping up or as a side effect of the other blood disorder. Because we can’t tell, it isn’t used as an indicator of increased mast cell production as a direct cause of SM.
For patients with SM-AHNMD, other markers are used to track disease progression of SM. That includes checking for things like inappropriate blood cell counts and organ swelling and dysfunction (B and C findings).