Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women is staggeringly common, with incidence ranging from 5.7-26.6%, depending on the study. CPP is marked by intermittent or constant pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis, lasts at least six months, and is not associated directly with menstruation, pregnancy or intercourse. Mast cells are known to be involved in the inflammatory processes of these conditions and are therefore linked to CPP.
It can be caused a wide variety of conditions that affect organs or structures in the pelvis, including endometriosis, inflammatory bowel diseases affecting the lower tract, interstitial cystitis, ovarian cysts and hypermobility type Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (HEDS). Over half of women with CPP report chronic bladder pain, for which interstitial cystitis is a common cause. Interstitial cystitis is widely accepted to be a mast cell mediated disease.
Despite the frequency of CPP, many exploratory surgeries to identify the cause find nothing (28-55%). Chronic pain from these conditions alters the way the sensory nerves in the pelvic cavity send signals to the spinal cord. This in turn disrupts interpretation of pain and sensation by the nerves, creating more visceral pelvic pain.
Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) affects about 26% of women with CPP. This dysfunction can cause embarrassing and disabling symptoms, including urinary and fecal incontinence. Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when organs such as the bladder move out of the correct position and impinge on other structures, such as the vagina. Pelvic organ prolapse can be called by pelvic floor dysfunction and it can cause pelvic floor dysfunction.
Sexual dysfunction affects 15-65% of PFD patients. PDF interferes with correct function of a number of muscles, including the levator ani, which hold urogenital structures in place and allow them stretch and contract during penetration and orgasm. Patients with pelvic organ prolapse often feel a bulge pushing against the vaginal wall that interferes with vaginal penetration. Vulvodynia, vestibulodynia, vaginismus and painful intercourse are commonly seen in PFD.
In PDF patients, muscles in the pelvic floor can be hypotonic (not tight enough), hypertonic (too tight), or have normal tone. Hypotonic dysfunction is more likely to cause incontinence, bladder symptoms and pelvic organ prolapse. Hypertonic dysfunction is associated much more with pain and sexual dysfunction. Reduction of the high tone is necessary to reduce pain.
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