The MastAttack 107: The Layperson’s Guide to Understand Mast Cell Diseases, Part 27

35. Why are there different sets of criteria for mast cell activation syndrome? What are the differences between them?

To answer this fully, we need to first discuss the history behind some terms.

Mast cell activation syndrome was first used to describe episodes of mast cell mediator release symptoms in a paper published in 2007 (Akin 2007). Specifically, the term was used to detail the experience of patients who had symptoms we commonly associated with mast cell activation, like flushing, hives, and low blood pressure.

However, the patients in this study were all found to have some features of systemic mastocytosis. While they had some of the criteria for an SM diagnosis, they didn’t meet all the criteria. These patients sort of looked like SM and quacked like SM but would not cleanly meet the diagnostic criteria. So the author of that paper made a separate diagnostic category for them. He called it monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome.

The use of the word “monoclonal” is VERY important here. Monoclonal is a medical term that is associated with the body making too many cells at once so that the cells that are made don’t work correctly. Systemic mastocytosis is a condition in which the body makes too many cells at once that don’t work right. It is a monoclonal disorder. So the author of that paper in 2007 is linking monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome to systemic mastocytosis. He thought of it as sort of a “pre-SM” or “early SM”.

Shortly after that 2007 paper was released, another school of thought was proposed by different groups about the nature of mast cell activation syndrome. These groups also linked the term mast cell activation syndrome to symptoms of mast cell activation, like flushing, hives, and all the rest. However, they did NOT link mast cell activation syndrome to monoclonality. This means that these researchers felt that mast cell activation syndrome could be present without a condition where you make too many sloppy cells like systemic mastocytosis. So patients with no evidence of systemic mastocytosis could still have mast cell activation syndrome according to these groups. The two major groups that believed MCAS was distinct from SM were led by Afrin/Molderings and Castells.

Let’s recap:

In 2007, Akin described mast cell activation syndrome as something that happened only in patients that had some evidence of systemic mastocytosis but not enough to be diagnosed with systemic mastocytosis. In order for this group to diagnose you with mast cell activation syndrome, you had to have evidence of systemic mastocytosis. It was an add on diagnosis to SM, sort of like SM with really bad symptoms.

In the years that followed, two groups, led by Afrin/Molderings and Castells, described mast cell activation syndrome as something that was distinct from systemic mastocytosis and could be found in anyone, even if they had no evidence of systemic mastocytosis at all.

Okay. So these two groups agreed that MCAS could happen to anyone. But they differ greatly in how they think MCAS can be diagnosed. For these groups, MCAS is NOT an add on diagnosis to systemic mastocytosis. It is a standalone diagnosis and entity.

So if the term MCAS was already being used, why didn’t the other groups just call their diagnosis something different? There isn’t a good answer to this but it is super common. Things are much more fluidly changing in the time between coining a term and having the diagnosis accepted by a large organization like the CDC so that your insurance can bill for treatment for that diagnosis. It would be great if everyone just used different names for their variants but this just doesn’t always happen.

Castells feels that in order to be diagnosed with MCAS, you have to show mast cell mediator symptoms, response to medications to treat mast cell activation, and evidence of mast cell activation. You also have to rule out every other possible cause of mast cell activation. Keep in mind that your mast cells are normally activated for lots of reasons so this can really difficult to do.

Additionally, this school considers mast cell activation to be evidenced only by elevation of serum tryptase, 24 hour urinary n-methylhistamine or 24 hour urinary prostaglandin D2 or 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2. So if none of these mediators are high, the patient doesn’t meet the criteria for diagnosis.

Afrin’s criteria are harder to explain because he believes that you should provisionally be diagnosed with mast cell activation disease, which can be a few different things, and then it should be narrowed down to mast cell activation syndrome or another mast cell condition.

The key difference between Afrin’s criteria and Castells’ are that he accepts elevated levels of several other mast cell chemicals to prove mast cell activation. Afrin counts toward diagnosis elevation of serum tryptase, 24 hour urinary n-methylhistamine, serum or 24 hour urinary prostaglandin D2 or 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2, 24 hour urinary leukotriene E4, heparin in blood, and chromogranin A in blood. All of these are released by mast cells. But some of them are released by other cells too so it’s not as easy to say for sure that mast cells cause the elevations. Additionally, some of these mediators are REALLY difficult to measure accurately, like heparin. So some people feel that these tests are less reliable to indicate mast cell activation alone.

Let’s talk about puppies for a second because when things get tough, just find a puppy and things will be cool from there on out.

Let’s present these three schools of thought on MCAS as puppies.

Let’s say that Akin is saying that all dogs with 10 spots on them have SM. He’s saying that dogs with some spots, but less than 10, have MCAS. He is also saying that dogs with NO spots CANNOT have MCAS.

Castells is saying that it doesn’t matter how many spots the dog has but it has to have either blue or green eyes to have MCAS. She doesn’t think the MCAS is related to spots but that it is related to specific eye color.

Afrin is saying that it doesn’t matter how many spots the dog has, or what color eyes. He will accept eyes of many other colors if the dog has a lot of symptoms that look like mast cell activation or respond to medications to treat mast cell activation.

I have simplified this as much as possible so it’s easier to understand. For that reason, I have omitted a lot of things. I am in no way saying that what I described here represents everyone’s experience. I am not saying that at all.

If you want my opinion on what MCAS is, and I’m inclined to think you do because you’re on my website reading my thoughts about mast cell disease, I feel that the evidence points strongly towards a space that blends both Afrin’s and Castells’ points. I feel that we should use more mast cell mediators than just serum tryptase, 24 hour urinary n-methylhistamine, serum or 24 hour urinary prostaglandin D2 or 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2. But I personally find the reliability of tests for heparin level to be very problematic and elevations of chromogranin A can be from so many things. I am not AT ALL saying that people diagnosed with these elevated markers do not have MCAS. I professionally develop diagnostics and these tests are just not great.

I also don’t think there’s enough evidence yet to say that mast cell disease can be proven with a biopsy demonstrating a certain number of mast cells per hpf (high powered field, this is a measurement we use for counting things we see under a microscope). I think it is very suggestive of inflammation and mast cell activity. But there are MANY instances in which normal, healthy, asymptomatic patients have a bunch of mast cells/hpf in their biopsies when they are used in studies.

So I’m solidly in the MCAS is its own entity group but don’t fall evenly into one group or the other regarding diagnosis.

Regarding treatment, I land more squarely with Afrin. I believe that if you have tried all of the conventional treatments and continue to have life threatening episodes, you should be able to try more drastic treatments provided you are well supervised by a knowledgeable provider. This is my personal opinion and in no way reflects the views of my employer. I think that if you are constantly anaphylaxing, or have no safe foods, or have dystonic seizures, or can’t stand up, and you have gone through a long list of “reasonable treatments” that you have a right to try to preserve your life and the quality thereof with any means available.

So, yea. MCAS is a can of worms. But we owe it to MCAS patients to have these awkward discussions even though it’s, well, awkward. Patients are falling through the cracks and we owe it to them to identify what criteria would let us catch them so they can get diagnosed and treated sooner.

I’ve tried hard to explain this objectively but if I haven’t done great, let me know in the comments.

For more detailed reading, please visit these posts:
The Provider Primer Series: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)
MCAS: Differing criteria among experts

The MastAttack 107: The Layperson’s Guide to Understanding Mast Cell Diseases, Part 10

I have answered the 107 questions I have been asked most in the last four years. No jargon. No terminology. Just answers.

17. Does mast cell disease impact mood, anxiety, and depression?
Yes. This has been described in literature for over 30 years. In 1986, a paper described a series of patients with systemic mastocytosis who had severe psychiatric symptoms as a result of their disease. It was called “mixed organic brain syndrome”.
Depression, anger, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorders, anxiety, irritating, and panic disorders have all been associated with mast cell disease.
• One study found that in a group of patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and systemic mastocytosis, 75% of the patients had symptoms of depression. In another study, 60% had symptoms of depression or anxiety.
• Many patients have been diagnosed with a psychiatric condition before learning that they have mast cell disease. For many mast cell patients, managing their diseases lessens the severity of their psychiatric symptoms. Antihistamines have been reported many times to improve these symptoms.
• Mast cells are often sitting right next to nerve cells throughout the body. Mast cells are found in large numbers in the brain. Chemicals released by mast cells can cause psychiatric symptoms.
• Some of the chemicals released by mast cells are specifically intended to talk to nerve cells. Histamine is one such chemical. When histamine is not released in the right amounts at the right times, it can affect how other chemicals are released. Some of these chemicals are also for cells to talk to nerves, like serotonin and dopamine. Mast cells can also release serotonin.

18. Are medications for depression, anxiety or other psychiatric conditions used in mast cell patients?
Yes. As with every medication, only you and your care team can decide if a medication is safe for you. No medication is universally safe or always dangerous.
Benzodiazepines are usually well tolerated in mast cell patients. Benzodiazepines actually interact with mast cells and can make them release fewer chemicals. (Be aware that the IV forms of these medications sometimes have alcohol in them).
SSRIs are sometimes taken by mast cell patients. Mast cell patients should be cautious because they can increase serotonin levels and mast cells can also release serotonin.
• Tricyclic antidepressants are more commonly used in mast cell patients. Tricyclic antidepressants actually work as antihistamines, too.
• Other drugs that can manage psychiatric symptoms, like mirtazapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine, also have antihistamine properties.
For more detailed reading, please visit these posts:

 

Neuropsychiatric features of mast cell disease: Part 1 of 2

Neuropsychiatric features of mast cell disease: Part 2 of 2

The MastAttack 107: The Layperson’s Guide to Understanding Mast Cell Diseases, Part 9

I have answered the 107 questions I have been asked most in the last four years. No jargon. No terminology. Just answers.

15. How is mast cell disease treated?
• There are a number of medications to treat mast cell disease. Mast cells release so many chemicals, some in a large quantity. We are not able to totally stop mast cells from releasing the chemicals so we need to use many medications to block their effects on the body.
The baseline regimen for mast cell patients include antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers. Specifically, patients are usually prescribed two antihistamines that work two different ways. These are called H1 antihistamines and H2 antihistamines. The H in these meds stand for histamine. There are many antihistamine options. Antihistamines stop the histamine from working in the body. Even still, many patients experience histamine driven symptoms
Mast cell stabilizers work by making mast cells less likely to release chemicals. There are fewer options for mast cell stabilizers. Cromolyn is a very common mast cell stabilizer. Ketotifen is both a mast cell stabilizer and an antihistamine. Ketotifen that you can take as a pill is not approved in the US because there was not a market for it so it was never submitted to the FDA. However, patients can get ketotifen in pill form through compounding pharmacies in the US.
• Other types of medication commonly used for mast cell disease that block the effect of mast cell chemicals include leukotriene inhibitors and PAF blockers.
Some medications can stop mast cells from making specific chemicals. These include COX inhibitors, lipoxygenase inhibitors, and corticosteroids like prednisone.
Many patients are deficient in some vitamins or minerals because they don’t absorb them well in the GI tract. Vitamin D and iron are commonly low. Patients often take supplements to replace these deficiencies.
• Chemo drugs are sometimes used to treat severe mast cell disease. These drugs can kill mast cells and/or decrease the amount of chemicals released.
• IV fluids are reported by patients to help with symptoms such as fatigue and swelling.
• There are many other medications that can be used to treat other symptoms.

16. Do I have to take medication if I feel okay?
Mast cell patients are usually recommended to take baseline medications like antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers even if they feel okay. This is for two main reasons: mast cells can damage your body even if you don’t feel it; and if you do not take baseline medications, you will have less protection from a severe reaction and anaphylaxis.
• Many patients have other medications prescribed to be taken as needed. These medications are given when symptoms are bad and do not necessarily have to be taken daily.
• Please speak with your provider to clarify what meds are taken as needed and what meds are taken every day.
For more detailed reading, please visit these posts:

The Provider Primer Series: Management of mast cell mediator symptoms and release

The Provider Primer Series: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)

The Provider Primer Series: Cutaneous Mastocytosis/ Mastocytosis in the Skin

The Provider Primer Series: Diagnosis and natural history of systemic mastocytosis (ISM, SSM, ASM)

The Provider Primer Series: Diagnosis and natural history of systemic mastocytosis (SM-AHD, MCL, MCS)

The Provider Primer Series: Relevance of mast cells in common health scenarios (continued)

Reason for care Post op care
Role of mast cells Mast cells are inherently activated following surgery as they drive tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and wound repair.[i]

Mast cells are involved in the transmission of pain stimuli.[iii]

Impact of condition on mast cells Mechanical trauma or pressure, such as dressing a wound or palpating the area, can directly induce degranulation and mast cell activation[ii].

Pain can trigger mast cell activation.[iii]

Psychological and physical stress can trigger an inflammatory response that involves mast cell activation.[iv]

Notes regarding condition treatment NSAIDS can trigger mast cell degranulation and cannot be taken by some mast cell patients.[iv]

Codeine and derivatives can trigger mast cell degranulation[v].

Vancomycin, gyrase inhibitors and cefuroxime should be avoided where possible due to risk of mast cell activation.[vi]

Amide caine anesthetics are preferred over ester caines.[vi]

ACE inhibitors and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta blockers) should be avoided. In particular, beta blockers directly interfere with the action of epinephrine and can impede anaphylaxis management.[vi]

Fentanyl and fentanyl derivatives are the preferred narcotic for mast cell patients due to low risk of degranulation. Hydromorphone and oxycodone are suggested by some authors and see use in mast cell patients.[vi]

Benzodiazepines can provide anxiolytic and anticonvulsive support in mast cell patients are needed.[vi]

IV contrast poses significant to mast cell patients due to the high risk of systemic degranulation. If required, premedication is advised.[vi]

Adhesive allergy is not unusual and patients may require specific occlusive dressings, tapes, or wound glue.

Notes regarding mast cell treatment Antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers can be helpful in mitigating common post op symptoms such as opiate induced itching and nausea. COX inhibitors can help with pain management.[vii]
Special considerations for mast cell patients Mast cells are the largest reservoir of endogenous heparin. Patient should be monitored for coagulopathy.[viii]

Mast cells contribute significantly to post operative ileus.[ix]

Intestinal manipulation directly results in mast cell degranulation.[ix]

 

Reason for care Hypertension
Role of mast cells Mast cell mediators can impact blood pressure. Histamine acting on H2 receptor can promote hypertension.[xi]

Renin, chymase, and carboxypeptidase A all participate in hypertension by dysregulation of angiotensin II.[xi]

9a,11b-PGF2, the degradation product of prostaglandin D2, thromboxane A2, and leukotrienes increase blood pressure.[xi]

Impact of condition on mast cells Dysregulation of angiotensin II and renin levels can affect mast cell behavior.[x]
Notes regarding condition treatment ACE inhibitors and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta blockers) should be avoided. In particular, beta blockers directly interfere with the action of epinephrine and can impede anaphylaxis management. Alternatives include calcium channel blockers, renin inhibitors, and ivabradine, among others.[vi]
Notes regarding mast cell treatment Several mast cell medications can impact levels of histamine, renin, and angiotensin II, all of which can affect blood pressure.
Special considerations for mast cell patients Mast cell patients taking β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta blockers) should carry a glucagon pen to increase efficacy of epinephrine in anaphylaxis.[xi]

As many as 31% of patients with mast cell disease demonstrate elevated arterial blood pressure secondary to mast cell activation. These elevations may be episodic or chronic.[xi]

Mast cell patients may also have hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (hyperPOTS), a condition that can cause hypertension.[xii]

 

Reason for care Heart disease
Role of mast cells Renin, chymase, and carboxypeptidase A all participate in hypertension by dysregulation of angiotensin II, contributing to evolution of arrhythmia.[xi]

Prostaglandin D2, VIP, PAF, IL-6 and nitric oxide are all vasodilating and can contribute to tachycardia.[xi]

Tryptase, histamine, PAF, IL-10, TNF, IL-4, IL-6, FGF, and TGFB can contribute to heart failure.[xi]

Mast cells participate in the formation, destabilization and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions.[xiii]

Histamine release is associated with acute coronary syndromes such as Kounis Syndrome, commonly known as “allergic MI” or “allergic angina”.[xiv]

Leukotriene C4, adrenomedullin, tryptase and chymase participate in the formation, destabilization and rupture of aneurysms.[xiii]

Impact of condition on mast cells Heart disease, especially heart failure, can disrupt release of catecholamines including norepinephrine.[xv] Norepinephrine dysregulation can impact mast cell behavior.

Dysregulation of angiotensin II and renin levels can affect mast cell behaviorx

Notes regarding condition treatment NSAIDS can trigger mast cell degranulation. Some mast cell patients are unable to take them.xx

Acetaminophen is generally recommended for use in mast cell patients.[iv]

ACE inhibitors and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta blockers) should be avoided. In particular, beta blockers directly interfere with the action of epinephrine and can impede anaphylaxis management. Alternatives include calcium channel blockers, renin inhibitors, and ivabradine, among others.[vi]

Notes regarding mast cell treatment COX inhibitors are routinely taken by mast cell patients and may provide relief of prostaglandin induced symptoms.[vi]

Several mast cell medications can impact levels of histamine, renin, and angiotensin II, all of which can affect blood pressure.

Epinephrine can provoke myocardial ischemia, prolong QT interval, and exacerbate coronary vasospasm and arrhythmia.[xiv]

Special considerations for mast cell patients Over 20% of systemic mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndrome patients experience palpitations and supraventricular tachycardia.[xi]

Prostaglandin D2 can cause tachycardia. PGD2 is associated with late phase allergic response and symptoms may be delayed for several hours after allergic event.[xi]

One study showed that 12/18 mast cell activation syndrome patients showed diastolic left ventricular dysfunction.[xi]

Mast cell patients may also have postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a condition that can cause blood pressure and heart rate irregularities.[xii]

 

Reason for care Chest pain
Role of mast cells Mast cells participate in the formation, destabilization and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions.[xiii]

Histamine release is associated with acute coronary syndromes such as Kounis Syndrome, commonly known as “allergic MI” or “allergic angina”.[xiv]

Leukotriene C4, adrenomedullin, tryptase and chymase participate in the formation, destabilization and rupture of aneurysms.[xiii]

Mast cells participate in esophageal inflammation in several models, including from acid reflux.[xvi]

Mast cells contribute to GI dysmotility which can cause esophageal spasms.[xvii]

Mast cells are involved in the transmission of pain stimuli.[iii]

Impact of condition on mast cells Pain can trigger mast cell activation.[iii]

Psychological and physical stress can trigger an inflammatory response that involves mast cell activation.[iv]

Notes regarding condition treatment NSAIDS can trigger mast cell degranulation. Some mast cell patients are unable to take them.xx

Acetaminophen is generally recommended for use in mast cell patients.[iv]

Fentanyl and fentanyl derivatives are the preferred narcotic for mast cell patients due to low risk of degranulation. Hydromorphone and oxycodone are suggested by some authors and see use in mast cell patients.[vi]

Benzodiazepines can provide anxiolytic and anticonvulsive support in mast cell patients are needed.[vi]

ACE inhibitors and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta blockers) should be avoided. In particular, beta blockers directly interfere with the action of epinephrine and can impede anaphylaxis management. Alternatives include calcium channel blockers, renin inhibitors, and ivabradine, among others.[vi]

Notes regarding mast cell treatment COX inhibitors are routinely taken by mast cell patients and may provide relief of prostaglandin induced symptoms.[vi]
Special considerations for mast cell patients Mast cell patients may experience GI dysmotility which can cause esophageal spasms.[xviii]

Mast cell patients sometimes have eosinophilic esophagitis, causing esophageal spasms, food impaction, and pain.[xix]

Over 20% of systemic mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndrome patients experience palpitations and supraventricular tachycardia.[xi]

Prostaglandin D2 can cause tachycardia. PGD2 is associated with late phase allergic response and symptoms may be delayed for several hours after allergic event.[xi]

One study showed that 12/18 mast cell activation syndrome patients showed diastolic left ventricular dysfunction.[xi]

Mast cell patients can present with Kounis Syndrome. Management of Kounis Syndrome relies upon addressing both cardiovascular aspects of the episode as well as allergic aspects.[xiv]

Costochondritis can occur in mast cell patients and may present as chest pain.

Mast cell patients may also have postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a condition that can cause blood pressure and heart rate irregularities.[xii]

IV contrast poses significant to mast cell patients due to the high risk of systemic degranulation. If required, premedication is advised.[vi]

References:

[i] Douaiher J, et al. (2014). Development of mast cells and importance of their tryptase and chymase serine proteases in inflammation and wound healing. Adv Immunol, 122, 211-252.

[ii] Zhang D, et al. (2012). Mast-cell degranulation induced by physical stimuli involves the activation of transient receptor-potential channel TRPV2. Physiol Res, 61(1), 113-124.

[iii] Chatterjea D, Martinov T. (2015). Mast cells: versatile gatekeepers of pain. Mol Immunol, 63(1),38-44.

[iv] Dewachter P, et al. (2014). Perioperative management of patients with mastocytosis. Anesthesiology, 120, 753-759.

[v] Brockow K, Bonadonna P. (2012). Drug allergy in mast cell disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 12, 354-360.

[vi] Molderings GJ, et al. (2016). Pharma,ological treatment options for mast cell activation disease. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmol, 389:671.

[vii] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise, practical guide to diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. J Hematol Oncol, 4(10).

[viii] Carvalhosa AB, et al. (2015). A French national survey on clotting disorders in mastocytosis. Medicine (Baltimore), 94(40).

[ix] Peters EG, et al. (2015). The contribution of mast cells to postoperative ileus in experimental and clinical studies. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 27(6), 743-749.

[x] Biscotte SM, et al. (2007). Angiotensin II mediated activation of cardiac mast cells. The FASEB Journal, 21(6).

[xi] Kolck UW, et al. (2016). Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease. Translation Research, x, 1-10.

[xii] Shibao C, et al. (2005). Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders. Hypertension, 45, 385-390.

[xiii] Kennedy S, et al. (2013). Mast cells and vascular diseases. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 138, 53-65.

[xiv] Kounis NG. (2016). Kounis Syndrome: an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management. Clin Chem Lab Med, 54(10), 1545-1559.

[xv] Florea VG, Cohn JN. (2014). The autonomic nervous system and heart failure. Circulation Research, 114, 1815-1826.

[xvi] Morganstern JA, et al. (2008). Direct evidence of mast cell participation in acute acid-induced inflammation in mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 46(2), 134-138.

[xvii] De Winter BY, et al. (2012). Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(1), 66-73.

[xviii] De Winter BY, et al. (2012). Intestinal mast cells in gut inflammation and motility disturbances. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(1), 66-73.

[xix] Nurko S, Rosen R. (2010). Esophageal dysmotility in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am, 18(1), 73-ix.

The Provider Primer Series: Management of mast cell mediator symptoms and release

Mast cell disease is largely managed by treatment of symptoms induced by mast cell mediator release or by interfering with mediator release.

The following tables detail treatment recommendations described in literature by mast cell disease key opinion leaders. Please refer to source literature for future details on dosing, duration, and so on. These are not my personal recommendations and any and all treatment decisions must be made by a medical professional familiar with the patient.

Second and third generation H1 antihistamines are preferred to exclude neurologic symptoms accompanying use of first generation H1 antihistamines. However, first generation H1 antihistamines are sometimes used by mast cell patients and in the setting of anaphylaxis.

In advanced and aggressive forms of mast cell disease, use of cytoreductive agents, chemotherapy, and, very rarely, hematopoietic stem cell transplant may be considered.

Table 1: Primary treatment options (consensus) for mast cell mediator symptoms or release described in literature
Class Target Intended actions of target Symptoms associated with target Reference
H1 antihistamines (second or third generation preferred) H1 histamine receptor Promotes GI motility, vasodilatation and production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and/or thromboxanes (via release of arachidonic acid) and nitric oxide  Hypotension, decreased chronotropy, flushing, angioedema, pruritis, diarrhea, headache, urticaria, pain, swelling and itching of eyes and nose, bronchoconstriction, cough, and airway impingement Valent 2007[i], Picard 2013[ii], Molderings 2016[iii], Hamilton 2011[iv]
H2 antihistamines H2 histamine receptor Release of gastric acid, vasodilation, smooth muscle relaxation, and modulates antibody production and release in various immune cells Increased chronotropy, increased cardiac contractility, hypertensioni, bronchodilation, increased presence of Th2 T cells, increasing IgE production Valent 2007, Picard 2013, Molderings 2016, Hamilton 2011
Mast cell stabilizer (cromolyn) Unknown targets to modulate electrolyte trafficking across the membrane to deter mast cell degranulation 

 

 

 

Unclear. Mast cell mediator release regulates many physiologic functions, including allergy response, immune defense against pathogens, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. In theory, all symptoms derived from mast cell mediator release. Research has demonstrated decreased release of mediators including histamine and eicosanoids. Valent 2007, Picard 2013, Molderings 2016, Hamilton 2011

 

Table 2: Primary treatment options (non-consensus) for mast cell mediator symptoms or release described in literature
Class Target Intended actions of target Symptoms associated with target Reference
Leukotriene receptor antagonists Leukotriene receptor Smooth muscle contraction, immune cell infiltration, production of mucus Bronchoconstriction, airway impingement, overproduction of mucus, pruritis, sinus congestion, runny nose Hamilton 2011, Valent 2007
N/A; Vitamin C decreases histamine levels by accelerated degradation and by interfering with production Unknown targets to deter mast cell degranulation  Mast cell mediator release regulates many physiologic functions, including allergy response, immune defense against pathogens, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. In theory, all symptoms derived from mast cell mediator release. Research has demonstrated decreased release of mediators including histamine and eicosanoids. Molderings 2016
H1 antihistamine; mast cell stabilizer Histamine H1 receptor and mast cell stabilizer (ketotifen) See above for function of targets for H1 antihistamines and mast cell stabilizer See above for symptoms targets for H1 antihistamines and mast cell stabilizer Molderings 2016

 

Table 3: Secondary options for mast cell mediator symptoms or release described in literature
Symptom Treatment Reference
Abdominal cramping H2 antihistamines, cromolyn, proton pump inhibitors, leukotriene antagonists, ketotifen Picard 2013
Abdominal cramping H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short course glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Abdominal pain H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short course glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Angioedema H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, aspirin, ketotifen Picard 2013
Angioedema Medications used for hereditary angioedema, including antifibrinolytic such as tranexamic acid, bradykinin receptor antagonist Molderings 2016
Blistering Local H1 antihistamines, H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, systemic glucocorticoids, topical cromolyn, dressing Valent 2007
Bone pain Analgesics, NSAIDS, opiates and radiation if severe Valent 2007
Bone pain Bisphosphonates, vitamin D, calcium, anti-RANKL therapy Molderings 2016
Colitis Corticosteroids active in GI tract or systemic Molderings 2016
Conjunctival injection H1 antihistamines, topical H1 antihistamines, topical corticosteroids, topical cromolyn Picard 2013
Conjunctivitis Preservative free eye drops with H1 antihistamine, cromolyn, ketotifen or glucocorticoid Molderings 2016
Dermatographism H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, aspirin, ketotifen Picard 2013
Diarrhea H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short course glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Diarrhea H2 antihistamines, cromolyn, proton pump inhibitors, leukotriene antagonists, ketotifen Picard 2013
Diarrhea Bile acid sequestrants, nystatin, leukotriene receptor antagonists, 5-HT3 receptor inhibitors, aspirin Molderings 2016
Flushing H1 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, H2 antihistamines, glucocorticoids, topical cromolyn Valent 2007
Flushing H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, aspirin, ketotifen Picard 2013
Gastric symptoms Proton pump inhibitors Molderings 2016
Headaches H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn Valent 2007
Headaches, poor concentration and memory, brain fog H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, cromolyn, ketotifen Picard 2013
Interstitial cystitis Pentosan, amphetamines Molderings 2016
Joint pain COX-2 inhibitors Molderings 2016
Mastocytoma (if symptomatic, growing) Local immunosuppressants, PUVA, removal Valent 2007
Miscellaneous/ overall elevated symptom profile Disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs, antineoplastic drugs, kinase inhibitors with appropriate target, anti-IgE, continuous antihistamine infusion Molderings 2016
Nasal pruritis H1 antihistamines, topical H1 antihistamines, topical corticosteroids, topical cromolyn Picard 2013
Nasal stuffiness H1 antihistamines, topical H1 antihistamines, topical corticosteroids, topical cromolyn Picard 2013
Nausea H2 antihistamines, cromolyn, proton pump inhibitors, leukotriene antagonists, ketotifen Picard 2013
Nausea H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short course glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Nausea Dimenhydrinate, benzodiazepines, 5-HT3 inhibitors, NK1 antagonists Molderings 2016
Neuropathic pain, paresthesia Alpha lipoic acid Molderings 2016
Non-cardiac chest pain H2 antihistamines, proton pump inhibitors Molderings 2016
Osteopenia, osteoporosis Bisphosphonates, vitamin D, calcium, anti-RANKL therapy Molderings 2016
Peptic ulceration/bleeding H2 antihistamines, proton pump inhibitors, blood products as needed Valent 2007
Pre-syncope/syncope H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, anti-IgE Picard 2013
Pruritis H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, topical cromolyn, PUVA treatment, leukotriene receptor antagonists, glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Pruritis H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, aspirin, ketotifen Picard 2013
Pruritis Topical cromolyn, topical palmitoylethanolamine containing preparations Molderings 2016
Recurrent hypotension H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, systemic glucocorticoids, aspirin Valent 2007
Respiratory symptoms Leukotriene receptor antagonists, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, short-acting β-sympathomimetic Molderings 2016
Severe osteopenia or osteoporosis Oral bisphosphonates, IV bisphosphonates, interferon alpha Valent 2007
Tachycardia H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, systemic glucocorticoids, aspirin Valent 2007
Tachycardia H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, corticosteroids, anti-IgE Picard 2013
Tachycardia AT1 receptor antagonists, agents that target funny current Molderings 2016
Throat swelling H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists, corticosteroids, anti-IgE Picard 2013
Urticaria H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, aspirin, ketotifen Picard 2013
Vomiting H1 antihistamines, H2 histamines, oral cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, short course glucocorticoids Valent 2007
Vomiting H2 antihistamines, cromolyn, proton pump inhibitors, leukotriene antagonists, ketotifen Picard 2013
Wheezing H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, leukotriene antagonists, corticosteroids, anti-IgE Picard 2013

 

[i] Valent P, et al. (2007). Standards and standardization in mastocytosis: Consensus statements on diagnostics, treatment recommendations and response criteria. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 37(6):435-453.

[ii] Picard M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: Monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clinical Therapeutics, 35(5):548-562.

[iii] Molderings GJ, et al. (2016). Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmol, 389:671.

[iv] Hamilton MJ, et al. (2011). Mast cel activation syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128(1):147-152.e2

The Provider Primer Series: Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)

Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), also called mast cell activation disorder (MCAD), is an immunologic condition in which mast cells are aberrantly activated, resulting in inappropriate mediator release.

Presentation

  • MCAS can be responsible for chronic symptoms in multiple organs that cannot be attributed to another cause[vi].
  • Patients frequently receive diagnosis for a number of idiopathic conditions prior to correct diagnosis with MCAS[vi].
  • Mast cell activation syndrome is overwhelmingly a secondary condition. MCAS can be secondary to a number of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, connective tissue diseases, and atopic conditions[i].
  • The term “primary MCAS” refers to mediator release symptoms associated with mastocytosis[xvii] . However, the term “mastocytosis” generally conveys the understanding that both proliferation and mediator release symptoms are possible.
  • In idiopathic MCAS, no cause for symptoms can be identified[xvii] .
  • The presence of multiple mast cell patients in one family is not uncommon. A heritable gene has not yet been identified. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected for transmission of mast cell disease to another generation[iv].
  • Approximately 75% of mast cell patients have at least one first degree relative with mast cell disease and not always the same subtype[ii]. For example, a mother may have MCAS, while one of her children has SM and the other has CM.

Diagnostic criteria

  • MCAS is a recently described diagnosis. In the absence of large studies, several groups have developed their own, sometimes conflicting, diagnostic criteria.
  • Differential diagnoses with potential to cause similar symptoms should be considered and excluded[iii].
  • The criteria most frequently used include those by a 2010 paper by Akin, Valent and Metcalfe[iii]; a 2011 paper by Molderings, Afrin and colleagues[iv]; and a 2013 paper by Castells and colleagues[v].
  • The criteria described in the 2011 paper by Molderings, Afrin and colleagues have been updated to include response to medication[vi].
  • Of note, a 2012 consensus proposal[x] was authored by a number of mast cell experts including Valent, Escribano, Castells, Akin and Metcalfe. It sees little practical use and is not generally accepted in the community.
  • The major sets of criteria listed above all include the following features:
    • Recurrent or chronic symptoms of mast cell activation
    • Objective evidence of excessive mast cell mediator release
    • Positive response to medications that inhibit action of mast cell mediators
  • Valent warns that in some cases, patients may not fulfill all criteria but still warrant treatment: “In many cases, only two or even one of these three criteria can be documented. In the case of typical symptoms, the provisional diagnosis of ‘possibly MCA/MCAS’ can be established, and in acute cases, immediate treatment should be introduced.”[vii]

Evidence of mediator release

  • Mast cells produce a multitude of mediators including tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, leukotrienes C4, D4 and E4, heparin and chromogranin A[viii].
  • Serum tryptase and 24 hour urine testing for n-methylhistamine, prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin 9a,11b-F2 are frequently included in testing guidelines in literature (Castells 2013)[ix], (Akin 2010)[x], (Valent 2012)[xi].
  • It can be helpful to test for other mast cell mediators including 24 hour urine testing for leukotriene E4[xii]; plasma heparin[xiii]; and serum chromogranin A[xiv].
  • In most instances, elevation of a mediator must be present on two occasions[ix]. This helps to exclude situations of appropriate mast cell activation, such as infection or wound healing.
  • For patients with baseline tryptase level >15 ng/mL, elevation of tryptase above this baseline is only required on one occasion[viii].

Symptoms associated with mast cell activation

  • Mediator release causes a wide array of symptoms, including hypertension[xv], hypotension, hypertension, wheezing, itching, flushing, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, angioedema, fatigue, and neurologic symptoms[iv].
  • In a small MCAS cohort (18 patients), 17% had a history of anaphylaxis[xvii] . A larger data set is desirable.
  • Patients with history of anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors[v]. If patient must be on a beta blocker, they should be prescribed a glucagon injector for use in the event of anaphylaxis[v].

Response to medications that inhibit action of mast cell mediators

  • Treatment of MCAS is complex and may require a number of medications. Second generation H1 antihistamines; H2 antihistamines; and mast cell stabilizers are mainstays of treatment[xvi].
  • Additional options include aspirin; anti-IgE; leukotriene blocker; and corticosteroids[xiii] .
  • First generation H1 antihistamines may be used for breakthrough symptoms[xiii] .
  • “An important point is that many different mediators may be involved in MCA-related symptoms so that the final conclusion the patient is not responding to antimediator therapy should only be drawn after having applied several different antimediator-type drugs[xiii] .
  • Inactive ingredients are often to blame for reaction to mast cell mediator focused medications. Many mast cell patients see benefit from having medications compounded[xvii].

Natural history

  • In one MCAS cohort of 18 patients, 33% had a complete (no unmanaged symptoms) response and 33% had a major (only one serious symptom) response after one year of mast cell treatment[xviii].
  • In another MCAS cohort of 135 patients, 51% demonstrated significant improvement, 11% had no obvious change in symptom severity and 38% experienced worsening symptoms[v]. (Author’s note: While described in an Afrin 2016[v] paper, the data from this cohort has not yet been published. Molderings is the principle investigator.

 

References

[i] Frieri M, et al. (2013). Mast cell activation syndrome: a review. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 13(1), 27-32.

[ii] Molderings GJ, et al. (2013). Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease. PLoS One, 8, e76241-24098785

[iii] Akin C, et al. (2010). Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(6), 1099-1104.e4

[iv] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[v] Castells M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clin Ther, 35(5), 548-562.

[vi] Afrin LB, et al. (2016). Often seen, rarely recognized: mast cell activation disease – a guide to diagnosis and therapeutic options. Annals of Medicine, 48(3).

[vii] Valent P. (2013). Mast cell activation syndromes: definition and classification. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 68(4), 417-424.

[viii] Theoharides TC, et al. (2012). Mast cells and inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(1), 21-33.

[ix] Picard M, et al. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clinical Therapeutics, 35(5), 548-562.

[x] Akin C, et al. (2010). Mast cell activation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 126(6), 1099-1104.e4

[xi] Valent P, et al. (2012). Definitions, criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell activation syndromes: a consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 157(3), 215-225.

[xii] Lueke AJ, et al. (2016). Analytical and clinical validation of an LC-MS/MS method for urine leukotriene E4: a marker of systemic mastocytosis. Clin Biochem, 49(13-14), 979-982.

[xiii] Vysniauskaite M, et al. (2015). Determination of plasma heparin level improves identification of systemic mast cell activation disease. PLoS One, 10(4), e0124912

[xiv] Zenker N, Afrin LB. (2015). Utilities of various mast cell mediators in diagnosing mast cell activation syndrome. Blood, 126(5174).

[xv] Shibao C, et al. (2005). Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders. Hypertension, 45(3), 385-390.

[xvi] Cardet JC, et al. (2013). Immunology and clinical manifestations of non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 13(1), 10-18.

[xvii] Afrin LB. “Presentation, diagnosis and management of mast cell activation syndrome.” In: Mast Cells. Edited by David B. Murray, Nova cience Publishers, Inc., 2013, 155-232.

[xviii] Hamilton MJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128(1), 147-152.e2

The Provider Primer Series: Cutaneous mastocytosis/ Mastocytosis in the skin

Mast cell disease: Categories

  • Mast cell disease is the collective term given to several distinct conditions mediated by mast cell dysfunction.  Speaking broadly, mast cell disease has two forms: mastocytosis, a clonal disease marked by excessive proliferation and infiltration of mast cells; and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), a disease that presents similarly to mastocytosis but demonstrates no clear indication of excessive proliferation. In addition, monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome (MMAS) can be viewed as straddling the two groupings with markers of clonality but minimum evidence to suggest overproduction of mast cells[i].
  • Mastocytosis has two forms: cutaneous, in which excessive mast cell infiltration is confined to the skin; and systemic, in which an organ that is not skin that is affected by excessive mast cell infiltration. Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) often have cutaneous mastocytosis; in this instance, this is called systemic mastocytosis with mastocytosis in the skin[ii].

Mastocytosis in the skin

  • Cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) is a proliferative condition marked by increased mast cell infiltration of the skin.  There are three subvariants of cutaneous mastocytosis: maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (MPCM), formerly known as urticarial pigmentosa (UP); diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM); and solitary mastocytoma of skin[ii].
  • Mast cell density in lesions is usually increased 4-8x above the density in healthy controls. However, some patients have mast cell density comparable to that in healthy controls[ii].
  • All forms of cutaneous mastocytosis can be found in children. Over 78% present by 13 months and some at birth[v]. Childhood onset CM often resolves by adolescence but not always[ii].
  • Most patients with mast cell lesions in childhood have CM rather than SM. Conversely, most patients who develop these macules in adulthood have systemic mastocytosis with mastocytosis in the skin[ii].
  • MPCM (UP) is overwhelmingly the dominant presentation of mastocytosis in the skin. Over 80% of all mastocytosis patients demonstrate the type of cutaneous involvement[ii].
  • In children, MPCM lesions are usually large and have variable morphology which may change over time. In adults, MPCM often occurs as small red/brown macules and may result in few lesions or cover the majority of the body[iii].
  • Telangiectasia macularis eruptive perstans (TMEP) is described as telangiectatic red macules generally found above the midtrunk. While previously thought to be a discrete entity, TMEP is now recognized as a form of MPCM[ii].
  • DCM is almost exclusively found in children with few adult onset cases. It does not present as discrete lesions but rather generalized erythema. Pachydermia may also be present, as well as darkening of the skin[ii].
  • DCM can be associated with formation of severe bullae from a variety of triggers, including rubbing the skin, infections and teething. Due to mast cell release of heparin, it is not unusual for skin wounds to bleed excessively[ii].
  • A mastocytoma is a low grade mast cell tumor most often found on the skin. It is frequently raised and yellow or brown in color. Touching the lesion usually evokes a strong wheal and flare reaction. Sweating may also occur. Blistering may be present[ii].

Diagnosis of mastocytosis in the skin

  • While a biopsy is the definitive diagnostic method, positive Darier’s sign is present in most children and many adults with mastocytosis in the skin. Use of antihistamines can suppress a positive Darier’s sign[ii].
  • Biopsies from lesional skin should be stained for mast cells using toluidine blue or Giemsa-Wright stain; evaluated for CD117, CD25 and CD2 using IHC; and evaluated for activating mutations in the CKIT gene using PCR or sequencing methods[i] .
Diagnostic criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis  (requires one major and one minor criterion)[iii]
Major Minor
Typical mast cell rash, usually maculopapular, or atypical rash with positive Darier’s sign Dense infiltration by tryptase positive mast cells, >15 mast cells/cluster or >20 mast cells/x40 magnification hpf if not clustered
Activating CKIT mutation detected in biopsy from skin lesion

 

Symptoms and treatment of mastocytosis in the skin

  • Common symptoms localized to the skin include flushing, itching, burning, hives and blistering[iv].
  • Mediator release symptoms can affect other organs regardless of whether or not they have systemic mastocytosis. Flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and low blood pressure have been reported among other symptoms. Wheezing, shortness of breath and rarely cyanosis may be present. Anaphylaxis can also occur[iii].
  • Treatment for cutaneous mastocytosis/mastocytosis in the skin relies upon histamine blockade with H1 inverse agonists and H2 antagonists; cromolyn sodium; leukotriene antagonists; and PUVA treatment in severe cases[v].
  • In treatment resistant cases, systemic glucocorticoids and topical cromolyn may be used.  In some instances, mastocytomas may be excisedi. Anaphylaxis should be treated with epinephrine per current guidelines[v].

[i] Molderings GJ, et al. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: a concise practical guide for diagnostic workup and therapeutic options. J Hematol Oncol, 4(10), 10.1186/1756-8722-4-10

[ii] Hartmann K, et al. (2016). Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 137(1), 35-45.

[iii] Valent P, et al. (2007). Standards and standardization in mastocytosis: consensus statements on diagnostics, treatment recommendations and response criteria. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 37, 435-453.

[iv] Carter MC, et al. (2014). Mastocytosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am, 34(1), 10.1016/j.iac.2013.09.001

[v] Castells M, et al. (2011). Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis in children. Am J Clin Dermatol, 12(4), 259-270.

 

Take home points: September 2015

Naturally occurring mast cell stabilizers: Part 1

Naturally occurring mast cell stabilizers: Part 2

Naturally occurring mast cell stabilizers: Part 3

Naturally occurring mast cell stabilizers: Part 4

Amentoflavone Ginkgo biloba, St. John’s Wort Decreases histamine release
Artekeiskeanol A Artemisa keiskeana May treat arthritis

Decreases mast cell degranulation

Decreases production of IL-13 and TNF

Curcimin Turmeric Decreases degranulation

Decreases production of IL-4 and TNF

Ellagic acid Strawberries, raspberries, pomegranate, walnuts Suppresses IgE activation

Decreases release of histamine, TNF, IL-6

Emodin Rhubarb, frangula bark Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreases IgE triggered production of TNF, PGD2, LTC4

Decreases secretion of TNF and IL-6

Epigallocatechin gallate White and green teas, apples, onions, hazelnuts Decreases degranulation

Decreases LTC4 secretion

Fisetin Apples, onions, persimmon, strawberries, cucumber Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreased IgE triggered histamine release

Decreases production of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF

Decreased action of NF-kB, decreased mediator production

Furanocoumarin from Angelica dahurica Angelica dahurica Inhibits COX-2 and 5-LO, decreasing production of prostaglandins and LTC4
Genistein Genista tinctoria Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreases histamine release

Nature tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Ginkgetin Gingko biloba Inhibits COX-2 and 5-LO, inhibiting production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes
Gnetin H Paeonia aneomala Resveratrol derived polymer

Decreases mast cell degranulation

Effective at lower dose than reservatrol

Decreases histamine secretion

Decreases production of TNF, IL-4, COX-2 and PGE2

Homoisoflavonone Cremastra appendiculata Inhibits COX-2 and 5-LO, inhibiting production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes

Decreases IgE triggered production of TNF and IL-6

Honokiol Magnolia obovata Suppresses allergic response and basophil activation
Hydroxytyrosol Olive oil, olive leaves Inhibited activation of mast cells at high concentration
Hypothemycin Hypomyces mushrooms Interfere with activation of CKIT and IgE receptors, inhibiting mast cell activation

 

Decreases production of IL-4

Kaempferol Potatoes, squash, cucumbers, peaches, Aloe versa Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreased IgE triggered histamine release

Affects estrogen signaling

Luteolin Celery, carrots, chamomile tea Prophylactic use of luteolin suppresses activation of mast cells and T cells

Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreases production of mediators

Magnolol Magnolia obovata Suppresses allergic response and basophil activation
Morin Osage orange, guava Decreases mast cell degranulation

Decreases IgE activation

Myricetin Walnuts, onions, red grapes Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreased IgE triggered histamine release

Decreases production of IL-6 and TNF

Decreased action of NF-kB, decreased mediator production

Polydatin Resveratrol precursor

Makes small intestine mucosa less “leaky” and inhibited allergic reaction in intestines

Decreases degranulation by up to 65%

Decreases histamine in intestinal mucosa and serum

Decreases production of IL-4

Quercetin Red onion, sweet potato, kale Inhibits production of histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF
Resveratrol Grapes, raspberries, blueberries, peanuts Directly interferes with degranulation

Decreases production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8

Rottlerin Mallotus philippensis Decreases degranulation of airway mast cells

Decreases histamine release

Suppresses IgE activation

Rutin Decreases IgE degranulation

Decreased IgE triggered histamine release

Decreases production of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF

Decreased action of NF-kB, decreased mediator production

Scopoletin Stinging nettle, Japanese belladonna, chicory, passion flower Decreases production of TNF, IL-6, IL-8

Inhibits NF-kB, affecting mediator production

Selinidin Angelia keiskei Inhibits IgE degranulation

Decreases production of LTC4 and TNF

Substance Source Function
Thunberginol A Hydrangeae macrophylla Decreases histamine release

Decreases production of TNF and IL-4

Thunberginol B Hydrangeae macrophylla Decreases degranulation from IgE or other sources

Decreases IgE triggered production of IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, TNF and GM-CSF

Xanthones from purple mangosteen Garcinia mangostana Decreases release of histamine, PGD2, LTC4 and IL-6

 

Role of sex hormones in hereditary angioedema

Gastroparesis: Autonomic nervous system and vagus nerve (Part Six)

  • ANS controls many involuntary functions including digestion and therefore gastric emptying
  • The vagus nerve coordinates gastric motility
  • ANS dysfunction inhibits digestion and motility
  • GP is common in patients with ANS conditions, like POTS
  • Treatment of autonomic dysfunction (as in POTS) can sometimes improve GP
  • Damage to the vagus nerve can cause liquids to move rapidly out of the stomach while solids are retained
  • Surgery and high blood sugar can damage the vagus nerve
  • In GP patients, nerve cells are not shaped correctly
  • 83% of GP patients have abnormalities in their stomach biopsies

Gastroparesis: Idiopathic gastroparesis (Part Seven)

  • 35-67% of GP cases are idiopathic (IGP)
  • IGP affects three times more women than men, especially young and middle-aged women
  • IGP is more likely in young women who are overweight or obese
  • Moderate to severe abdominal pain was more frequent in IGP than other types
  • Nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and feeling full are common in IGP
  • Medications that may be helpful but need investigation include sildenafil, paroxetine, cisapride, tegaserod, clonidine and buspirone

Kounis Syndrome: Treatment (Part 3 of 4)

Kounis Syndrome treatment requires amelioration of both allergic and cardiovascular symptoms.

  • Type I KS patients may only need treatment for allergic aspects without ever progressing to heart attack.
  • Type II and III KS patients are recommended to follow acute coronary event protocol recommended by ACS.
Treatment of allergic aspects of Kounis Syndrome
Drug class Medication Dosage Notes
H1 inverse agonist Diphenhydramine 1-2 mg/kg

50mg IV is a frequent dosage used for mast cell patients experiencing anaphylaxis symptoms

Can cause hypotension and decrease blood flow through coronary artery if given bolus; should be given slowly
H2 antagonist Ranitidine 1 mg/kg
Famotidine 40mg IV is a frequent dosage used for mast cell patients experiencing anaphylaxis symptoms
Corticosteroid Methylprednisolone or other Methylprednisolone 120 mg IV is a frequent dosage used for mast cell patients experiencing anaphylaxis symptoms Corticosteroids are not used for immediate effect, but to prevent biphasic reactions.Corticosteroid treatment in active heart attack patients has not been found to be harmful.Corticosteroids were recommended as early as 2008 by Kounis for several reasons: inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis, decreasing amount of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes that can be made; reduction of inflammation by increasing death receptor CD95 on some cells; synthesis of annexins, proteins that modulate inflammatory cells and their actions

 

 

Fluid support IV fluids Crystalloid normal saline; avoid colloid solution Use with caution to avoid pulmonary edema
Epinephrine Epinephrine IM dose: 0.2-0.5mg every 5-15 minutes Can contribute to myocardial ischemiaCan prolong the QTc interval

Can cause coronary vasospasm and arrhythmias, especially if given IV

Glucagon is an alternative in patients for whom epinephrine is inappropriate

 

 

Treatment of coronary syndrome in Kounis Syndrome
Drug class Medication Dosage Notes
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin Sublingual: 0.3-0.4 mg every five minutesIV: 5-10mcg/min, increased by 10 mcg/min every 5 minutes Causes dilation of coronary vesselsIncreases bloodflow to counteract myocardial ischemia
Calcium channel blocker Diltiazem, verapamil Example  ER dosing for verapamil: 80mg orally every eight hours, immediate release Vasodilators
NSAID Aspirin 160-325 mg Prevent clot formation
P2Y12 receptor inhibitor Clopidogrel 75mg daily Taken with aspirin to prevent clot formation; some medical bodies recommend P2Y12 inhibitors with aspirin, while others recommend aspirin alone
Glycosaminoglycan Heparin IV: 5000 IU bolus, followed by infusion of heparin until PTT 1.5-2.5 above normal Type III patientsHeparin may cause allergic reaction, especially in bolus
Opioid Fentanyl 1-2 mcg/kg Drug of choice for pain management, causes small amount of mast cell degranulation, other opiates risk large scale degranulationDoes not affect cardiac output
N/A Stent placement if vessel narrowed by atherosclerosis N/A

 

Notes:

Beta blockers are contraindicated in Kounis Syndrome for the same reason they are contraindicated in mast cell patients – they block the action of epinephrine, which complicates treatment of anaphylaxis.

IV acetaminophen is generally well tolerated by mast cell patients but is not appropriate for Kounis Syndrome. Acetaminophen reduces cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance which can cause severe low blood pressure and aggravate cardiogenic shock.

References:

Kounis NG, et al. Kounis Syndrome (allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction). In: Angina Pectoris: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment 2008.

Lippi G, et al. Cardiac troponin I is increased in patients admitted to the emergency department with severe allergic reactions. A case-control study. International Journal of Cardiology 2015, 194: 68-69.

Kounis NG, et al. The heart and coronary arteries as primary target in severe allergic reactions: Cardiac troponins and the Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. International Journal of Cardiology 2015, 198: 83-84.

Fassio F, et al. Kounis syndrome: a concise review with focus on management. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016; 30:7-10.

Kounis Syndrome: Aspects on pathophysiology and management. European Journal of Internal Medicine 2016.

Kounis NG. Kounis syndrome: an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management. Clin Chem Lab Med 2016

Kounis NG. Coronary hypersensitivity disorder: the Kounis Syndrome. Clinical Therapeutics 2013, 35 (5): 563-571.

Cardiovascular manifestations of mast cell disease: Part 5 of 5

Low blood pressure causing lightheadedness or fainting is a classic manifestation of mast cell disease with as many as 22-55% of patients having experienced it at least one. For comparison, the control group demonstrated a frequency of 5%.  Some patients experience this symptom often while others only rarely experience it or never do.

A staggering amount of mast cell mediators can induce low blood pressure; indeed, this is the reason why low blood pressure is the hallmark sign of severe allergic reaction and anaphylaxis.  Histamine can induce hypotension through the H1 receptor.  Heparin makes histamine and tryptase less susceptible to degradation, allowing longer action.

Many mediators are vasodilating, widening the blood vessels. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a vasodilator.  PGD2 is also a very potent in this capacity. PGE2 is not released in large amounts by mast cells, but has the same effect. Platelet activating factor decreases blood pressure in multiple ways: by decreasing the force of heart muscle contraction, by slowing heart rate and by widening blood vessels. IL-6 and nitric oxide are also vasodilating.

Some mediators lower blood pressure by their participation in the bradykinin pathway.  Bradykinin is a potent stimulator of fluid loss from the blood to the tissues, causing low blood pressure and angioedema. Heparin can serve as an initiator for the production of bradykinin. Tryptase and chymase both participate in bradykinin formation.

Mast cell medications can be very effective in increasing blood pressure by decreasing fluid loss from the blood to the tissues.  As PGD2 can be a strong vasodilator, COX inhibitors like NSAIDs that interfere with prostaglandin production can help to increase blood pressure.  Aspirin, 81-325mg once or twice daily, is sometimes recommended for adults that are not sensitive to the medication.  Early data on the use of omalizumab (Xolair) in SM patients indicates that it may prevent episodes of sudden onset low blood pressure.

References:

Kolck UW, et al. Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease. Translation Research 2016; x:1-10.

Gonzalez-de-Olano D, et al. Mast cell-related disorders presenting with Kounis Syndrome. International Journal of Cardiology 2012: 161(1): 56-58.

Kennedy S, et al. Mast cells and vascular diseases. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2013; 138: 53-65.