Glossary of mast cell related terms: F-L

FceRI: the high affinity IgE receptor; where IgE molecules bind to the outside of cells, like mast cells; binding the FceRI receptor triggers mast cell activation

Food associated, exercise induced anaphylaxis: An IgE mediated reaction that is triggered by ingesting certain foods in close time proximity to exercise

Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES): An allergic reaction to food proteins that is not mediated by IgE, usually found in infants; the most severe non-IgE mediated food hypersensitivity

Gastroparesis: a condition in which stomach contents are not emptied into the small intestine within an appropriate time period without an obvious anatomical explanation

Granule: a pocket inside a cell that holds molecules to be released outside of the cell

Granulocyte: white blood cells that have granules inside the cells that hold molecules to be released outside of the cell; mast cells, eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils are granulocytes

H1: histamine 1 receptor

H1 inverse agonist: a class of drugs that interferes with the effect of histamine at the H1 receptor

H2: histamine 2 receptor

H2 blocker: a class of drugs that interferes with the effect of histamine at the H2 receptor

Heparin: a mast cell mediator; a blood thinner

Hepatomegaly: swelling of the liver

Hepatosplenomegaly: swelling of the liver and spleen

Hereditary angioedema (HAE): a heritable blood disorder that causes episodes of protracted swelling that can be life threatening.

Histamine: a neurotransmitter; responsible for a large portion of symptoms seen in mast cell disease and anaphylaxis

HPA axis: the signals and feedback loops that regulate the activities of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal glands to coordinate the body’s stress response; also helps regulate digestion, immune activation, sexuality and energy metabolism

Hypersensitivity: allergic reaction

Hypersplenism: overactivity of the spleen

IgE: an antibody that triggers allergic responses

Kounis Syndrome: an event in which a patient experiences severe chest pain or heart attack as the result of an allergic reaction; also called allergic angina or allergic myocardial infarction

Late onset anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis that begins several hours after exposure to trigger

Leukotrienes: Structural class related to prostaglandins produced by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO); mediators released by mast cells.

Leukotriene receptor antagonist: A class of drugs that interferes with the function of leukotrienes; examples include montelukast and zafirlukast.

Ligand: a molecule that binds to another molecule, triggering a specific effect; with regards to mast cell disease, ligands bind to receptors, such as IgE (ligand) binding to FceRI (receptor)

LO: lipoxygenase; the enzyme that produces leukotrienes

Low histamine diet: a diet which minimizes dietary sources of histamine, which can help reduce symptoms for some mast cell patients; there is no authoritative list of low histamine foods and some trial and error is required

 

2 Responses

  1. Sheryl McCormick September 25, 2015 / 5:43 am

    Thank you so much for all the great information. I’ve been struggling for 50 years to make sense of what’s been happening to me. Doctors have treated me as if I’m a hypochondriac or mentally unstable which I have been but that’s been in control for years. I’m trying to get my ducks in a row to get my PCP (who is compassionate) to look into this being the explanation. My mother and daughters have similar problems. I work in health care. The way managed care works it doesn’t currently incentivize or even reimburse properly our doctor’s to address more than one issue at a time so when you are complicated it is harder to get answers. We have to do our research. So thank you!
    Maybe the coming changes that will pay for outcomes will help. And I anticipate we will find that mast cell disorders are more commonplace than we knew.

  2. Lisa LaBrake September 25, 2015 / 11:32 am

    Thank you Lisa….I alos have SM…Thanks so much for this list! It really helps!
    Have a good day!
    Lisa LaBrake

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